TECTONIC HAZARDS

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TECTONIC HAZARDS 作者: Mind Map: TECTONIC HAZARDS

1. WHY area?

1.1. Natural Hazard

1.1.1. WHAT

1.1.1.1. Definition

1.1.1.1.1. naturally occurring event threatens human lives => causes damage to property

1.1.1.2. 2 types

1.1.1.2.1. tectonic natural hazards

1.1.1.2.2. climate-related natural hazard

1.2. Structure of the Earth

1.2.1. 3 main layers

1.2.1.1. Core

1.2.1.1.1. centre of the earth | temp 3000C-5000C

1.2.1.1.2. thick 3500km include iron & nickel

1.2.1.1.3. 2 part (liquid outer core + solid inner core)

1.2.1.2. Mantle

1.2.1.2.1. above core | 80% of earth | temp 800C - 3000C

1.2.1.2.2. thick 2900km include solid rock flow under high temp

1.2.1.2.3. 2 part (upper mantle + lower mantle)

1.2.1.3. Crust

1.2.1.3.1. earth's outermost layer (where we live) | < 1% earth volume

1.2.1.3.2. thick few km - 70 km include basalt & granite rocks

1.2.1.3.3. 2 type

1.2.1.4. mantle (upper mantle) + crust => lithosphere => rock in lithosphere melt => magma

1.3. Tectonic places

1.3.1. WHAT

1.3.1.1. Definition

1.3.1.1.1. crust (outermost layer of earth) is broken into tectonic plates => move

1.3.1.1.2. Part of lithosphere

1.3.1.1.3. made from ocean crust, continental crust or mix of both

1.3.1.2. type of movement?

1.3.1.2.1. Divergent plate boundaries

1.3.1.2.2. Convergent plate boundaries

1.3.1.2.3. Transform plate boundaries

1.3.2. WHY (move)

1.3.2.1. Convection currents + Slab-pull force work tgt => plate movement

1.3.2.2. explain 7 steps (refer to books)

2. WHAT landforms / tectonic phenomena?

2.1. 3 Landforms

2.1.1. Fold mountains

2.1.1.1. from Convergent plate boundaries

2.1.1.1.1. common in SEDIMENTARY ROCK (formed form multiple layers of sediment) than IGNEOUS ROCK (formed molten rocks cool & solidity and METAMORPHIC ROCK (formed rock changed by high temp,pressure

2.1.1.2. explain: when plates move towards & collide => compressional force create immense pressure => layer of rocks compressed & folded

2.1.1.3. fold type

2.1.1.3.1. Upfold (anticline) + downfold (syncline) => ~

2.1.1.4. eg: Himalaya, Rocky Mountain, Andes

2.1.2. Rift valleys & Block mountains

2.1.2.1. from Divergent plate boundaries

2.1.2.2. explain: when plates move apart => rise to fault (is fracture along rocks are displaced) => tensional forces => cause central block of land bt parallel fault => from rift valley

2.1.2.3. eg: East African Rift Valley, Hutt Valley | block mountain (Vosges, Black Forest)

2.1.3. Volcanoes

2.1.3.1. Definition

2.1.3.1.1. from convergent & divergent

2.1.3.1.2. magma chamber | vents

2.1.3.1.3. explain: at subduction zone => mantle material melt => magma => magma chamber => pressure force magma earth's surface via VENT (open earth's surface w pipe leading magma chamber) => lava => lava build around vent => form volcano

2.1.3.2. characteristics

2.1.3.2.1. low-silica lava => low viscosity

2.1.3.2.2. high-silica lava => high viscosity

2.1.3.2.3. VISCOSITY - refer stickiness of lava/ resistance to flow

2.1.3.3. types

2.1.3.3.1. shield volcanoes

2.1.3.3.2. stratovocanoes

2.1.3.4. distribution

2.1.3.4.1. Pacific Ring of Fire

2.2. Phenomena

2.2.1. Earthquakes

2.2.1.1. definition

2.2.1.1.1. vibration earth's crust by sudden release stored energy in rocks found along fault lines

2.2.1.1.2. explain: occur when plates movement along plate boundaries => build-up stress on rocks side of fault => rocks cannot withstand increasing stress => sudden slip meters => earthquake

2.2.1.2. type

2.2.1.2.1. deep-focus earthquake

2.2.1.2.2. shallow-focus earthquake

2.2.1.3. extent of damage (5)

2.2.1.3.1. general

2.2.1.3.2. population density

2.2.1.3.3. level of preparedness

2.2.1.3.4. distance from the epicentre

2.2.1.3.5. time of occurrence

2.2.1.3.6. type of soil

2.2.1.4. location

2.2.1.4.1. in both convergent, divergent, transform plate

2.2.1.4.2. more in convergent (coz more stress when plate subduct)

2.2.1.4.3. 3/4 occur in Pacific Ring of Fire

2.2.1.5. measuring

2.2.1.5.1. seismograph

2.2.1.6. risks of living (6)

2.2.1.6.1. tsunamis

2.2.1.6.2. disruption of services

2.2.1.6.3. landslides

2.2.1.6.4. destruction of infrastructure

2.2.1.6.5. loss of lives

2.2.1.6.6. destruction of property

2.2.2. volcanic eruptions

2.2.2.1. Definition

2.2.2.1.1. active volcanoes

2.2.2.1.2. dormant volcanoes

2.2.2.1.3. extinct volcanoes

2.2.2.2. risks of living (2)

2.2.2.2.1. massive destruction

2.2.2.2.2. pollution

2.2.2.3. benefit (4)

2.2.2.3.1. fertile soil

2.2.2.3.2. Precious stones & minerals

2.2.2.3.3. tourism

2.2.2.3.4. Geothermal energy

3. HOW people prepare

3.1. preparedness measures (4)

3.1.1. land use regulation

3.1.1.1. rules to restrict developments in certain area

3.1.1.1.1. not built across area at risk of liquefaction (vibration from earthquake cause saturated soil to flow like liquid)

3.1.2. infrastructure

3.1.2.1. need developed advanced engineering => withstand the vibration associated with earthquake

3.1.2.1.1. building

3.1.2.1.2. roads, bridges & dams

3.1.2.1.3. homes, office buildings & factories

3.1.3. emergency drills

3.1.3.1. from of preparedness measure where pp practise steps to take when earthquake

3.1.3.1.1. move to safe locations

3.1.3.1.2. listen to instruction

3.1.3.1.3. practise first aid

3.1.4. monitoring & warning systems

3.1.4.1. earthquake

3.1.4.1.1. monitor

3.1.4.1.2. warning (disadvantage)

3.1.4.2. tsunami

3.1.4.2.1. monitor

3.1.4.2.2. warning (disadvantage)

3.2. short-term responses (2)

3.2.1. last for weeks

3.2.1.1. search & rescue

3.2.1.2. emergency/food/medical supplies

3.3. long-term responses (2)

3.3.1. over months & years

3.3.1.1. rebuilding of infrastructure

3.3.1.2. provision of health care