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1. WHY area?

1.1. Natural Hazard

1.1.1. WHAT Definition naturally occurring event threatens human lives => causes damage to property 2 types tectonic natural hazards climate-related natural hazard

1.2. Structure of the Earth

1.2.1. 3 main layers Core centre of the earth | temp 3000C-5000C thick 3500km include iron & nickel 2 part (liquid outer core + solid inner core) Mantle above core | 80% of earth | temp 800C - 3000C thick 2900km include solid rock flow under high temp 2 part (upper mantle + lower mantle) Crust earth's outermost layer (where we live) | < 1% earth volume thick few km - 70 km include basalt & granite rocks 2 type mantle (upper mantle) + crust => lithosphere => rock in lithosphere melt => magma

1.3. Tectonic places

1.3.1. WHAT Definition crust (outermost layer of earth) is broken into tectonic plates => move Part of lithosphere made from ocean crust, continental crust or mix of both type of movement? Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries Transform plate boundaries

1.3.2. WHY (move) Convection currents + Slab-pull force work tgt => plate movement explain 7 steps (refer to books)

2. WHAT landforms / tectonic phenomena?

2.1. 3 Landforms

2.1.1. Fold mountains from Convergent plate boundaries common in SEDIMENTARY ROCK (formed form multiple layers of sediment) than IGNEOUS ROCK (formed molten rocks cool & solidity and METAMORPHIC ROCK (formed rock changed by high temp,pressure explain: when plates move towards & collide => compressional force create immense pressure => layer of rocks compressed & folded fold type Upfold (anticline) + downfold (syncline) => ~ eg: Himalaya, Rocky Mountain, Andes

2.1.2. Rift valleys & Block mountains from Divergent plate boundaries explain: when plates move apart => rise to fault (is fracture along rocks are displaced) => tensional forces => cause central block of land bt parallel fault => from rift valley eg: East African Rift Valley, Hutt Valley | block mountain (Vosges, Black Forest)

2.1.3. Volcanoes Definition from convergent & divergent magma chamber | vents explain: at subduction zone => mantle material melt => magma => magma chamber => pressure force magma earth's surface via VENT (open earth's surface w pipe leading magma chamber) => lava => lava build around vent => form volcano characteristics low-silica lava => low viscosity high-silica lava => high viscosity VISCOSITY - refer stickiness of lava/ resistance to flow types shield volcanoes stratovocanoes distribution Pacific Ring of Fire

2.2. Phenomena

2.2.1. Earthquakes definition vibration earth's crust by sudden release stored energy in rocks found along fault lines explain: occur when plates movement along plate boundaries => build-up stress on rocks side of fault => rocks cannot withstand increasing stress => sudden slip meters => earthquake type deep-focus earthquake shallow-focus earthquake extent of damage (5) general population density level of preparedness distance from the epicentre time of occurrence type of soil location in both convergent, divergent, transform plate more in convergent (coz more stress when plate subduct) 3/4 occur in Pacific Ring of Fire measuring seismograph risks of living (6) tsunamis disruption of services landslides destruction of infrastructure loss of lives destruction of property

2.2.2. volcanic eruptions Definition active volcanoes dormant volcanoes extinct volcanoes risks of living (2) massive destruction pollution benefit (4) fertile soil Precious stones & minerals tourism Geothermal energy

3. HOW people prepare

3.1. preparedness measures (4)

3.1.1. land use regulation rules to restrict developments in certain area not built across area at risk of liquefaction (vibration from earthquake cause saturated soil to flow like liquid)

3.1.2. infrastructure need developed advanced engineering => withstand the vibration associated with earthquake building roads, bridges & dams homes, office buildings & factories

3.1.3. emergency drills from of preparedness measure where pp practise steps to take when earthquake move to safe locations listen to instruction practise first aid

3.1.4. monitoring & warning systems earthquake monitor warning (disadvantage) tsunami monitor warning (disadvantage)

3.2. short-term responses (2)

3.2.1. last for weeks search & rescue emergency/food/medical supplies

3.3. long-term responses (2)

3.3.1. over months & years rebuilding of infrastructure provision of health care