ED 302 Foundations of Education

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ED 302 Foundations of Education создатель Mind Map: ED 302 Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2: The Politics of Education

1.1. Purposed of Education

1.1.1. 1. The intellectual purposes of schooling- This purpose of schooling focuses on the basic skills that we as humans need to possess such as the core subjects and basic literary skills. 2.The political purposes of schooling- This purpose emphasizes the political framework of our countries and other countries. It is also a platform to educate and instill basic laws of society to the future generation that we have the opportunity to teach. 3. The economic purposes of schooling- This area focuses on preparing students for the economics situations they will face and to prepare them for the workforce effectively.

1.2. Perspectives of Education

1.2.1. 1. The role of school ( Conservative Perspective)- The conservative perspective of the role of school is one that focuses on the development of our more talented students in order to successfully create a better future for our society. The books puts it like this, "The Conservative Perspective sees the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard- working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity." 2.Explanations of unequal performance (Liberal Perspective)- This liberal perspective states that the school system itself does not successfully focus and emphasize the importance of all the students, especially those of minority and poor families. That traditional curriculum leaves out several cultural groups and at the same time excludes them from learning at all. 3. Definiton of educational problems (Radical Perspective)- This radical perspective, although similar to some liberal opinion, states that school systems should not only do a better job of avoiding excluding certain minority groups such as different heritages or LGBT, but work on sensitizing students to these issues to create a more comfortable environment for those affected.

2. Chapter 3: The History of Education

2.1. Reform Movements

2.1.1. It was difficult to choose one of these reform movements to side with. However, I chose to lean towards the traditional reform movement. For whatever reason, my whole life I have leaned towards traditional things. Whether it be discipline or government, this has always been the case. In this particular aritcle I chose the traditional movement because I truly believe it had the most influence on education. though progressivism gained a lot of momentum heading into the second half of the 20th century. I believe the undeniable need for traditional values were not only needed but sought after. Many believed the progressive movement, though positive in some areas, lacked discipline in areas that are vital to possess discipline. After reading the chapter, along with personal experience, my best results came from a traditional setting.

2.2. Historical Interpretations

2.2.1. I Chose the Radical-Revisionist school. These people believe, as the book states "Radical historians do not deny that the educational system has expanded; rather, they believe it expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society for the control of the working class and immigrants, and for the economic efficiency and productivity." This group believes that the poor and less fortunate get the bad end of the deal regarding the other views on the situation. The radicals believe that the high class in society uses the educational system to better set themselves up for the future.

3. Chapter 4: The Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. 1. Functionalism- Functional sociologists begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system. They often examine how well the parts are integrated with each other. View society as a kind of machine Education might not have the power to overcome problems without change in other aspects

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theory- Argue that social order is not based on some collective agreement. Schools equal social battlefields Weberian approach conflict sociologists emphasize struggle

3.1.3. 3. Interactionalism- Primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives Evaluates the everyday interaction between students and students, and students and teachers.

3.2. Effects on Schooling

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes- I like this effect because it hits on the relationship between school and social participation later in life. The correlation between knowledge and school and future knowledge intrigues me. Attitudes also have a huge impact on students. In schools with higher academic standards and discipline, achievement level is higher Students who study in summer, show improvement

3.2.2. 2. Employment- I think this may be the most 'real' effect on students. The reality of employment goes past the initial classroom and presents a glimpse of reality. As the book states "Most students believe that graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities, and they are right." This may be the biggest motivator to students than anything else. Graduating from college will lead to greater employment oppurtunities is correct 54 percent of 8 million college graduates in U.S entered jobs Getting a professional degree is important for earning more money

3.2.3. 3. Teacher Behavior- Teachers have huge impact on student learning and behavior. Teachers set standards for students and influence self-esteem Students learn more with more praise from teachers Several teachers that have motivated students to do their best

3.2.4. 4.Education and Mobility- The belief that occupational and social mobility begin at the schoolhouse door is a critical component of the American ethos. Americans believe that more education leads to economic and social mobility. difference between educational amount and educational route Education opens the door of opportunity

3.2.5. 5.De Facto Segregation- Another way that schools reinforce inequalities, particularly racial and ethnic inequalities. African Americans who attended integrates schools less likely to be arrested Women less likely to have a child before 18 in desegregated schools In 1960's and 70's white families set up schools in order to avoid integration

4. Chapter 5: The Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism- A philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired goals.

4.1.1. Generic Notions -Deweys ideas of education often referred to as progressive -This methodology rested on notion that children were active, organic beings, growing and changing -Democracy was particularly important for Dewey

4.1.2. Goal of Education -School should be a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured Providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order Democratic society where cooperation and community are desired ends

4.1.3. Role of Teacher Teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows Teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator Have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum

4.1.4. Methods of Instruction Children learn both individually and in groups Formal instruction was abandoned Students should pose questions about what they want to know Learning in non-traditonal yet natural ways

4.1.5. Curriculum Progressive educators are not wedded to fixed curriculum Dewey proposed a balance between traditional disciplines, and the needs and interests of the child

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Orginizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders in my district

5.1.1. Federal Alabama Senators Richard Shelby

5.1.2. House of Representatives Mo Brooks Martha Roby Terri Sewlel Gary Palmer Bradley Byrne Robert Aderholt Micheal D. Rogers

5.1.3. State Senator Paul Bussman

5.1.4. State House of Represantive Marcell Black Ken Johnson

5.1.5. State Superintendent Micheal Sentance

5.1.6. Representative on state school board Jackie Zeigler

5.1.7. Local Superintendent John Bret Smith

5.1.8. All members of Local school Board Gary Bradford Reta Waldrep Christine Garner Dr. Beth Vinson Shannon Terry

5.2. Identify and Describe elements of change

5.2.1. 1.School Processes Elements of Change

5.2.2. 2. School Cultures Elements of Change Authority Political

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Explain a curriculum Theory which you advocate

6.1.1. Social efficiency curriculum Philosophically pragmatist approach Democratic Response Different types of students should receive different schooling Dewey Secondary education

6.2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching

6.2.1. 1.Mimetic Tradition Mimic epistemic Importance of method reproducibility Not limited to "bookish" learning What the teacher knows, the student shall come to know Test, Present, Perform/ Evaluate, Reward/fix, Enter Remedial Loop, Advance

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition Capable of accomplishing Person being taught Teacher as artist Teacher as creator Personal Modeling, Soft suasion, Narrative Teachers superiority not clear cut

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes

7.1.1. Class-Students in different social classes have different educational experiences Lower levels of expectations for children in low class family Less parental financial support in some cases Correlation between social class and level of education

7.1.2. Race-U.S. Society still highly stratified by race. Minorities have lower SAT scores, these lead to lower chances of college acceptance Difficult to separate race from class Minority students receive less opportunities than white students

7.1.3. Gender-Historically, an individuals gender was related to his or her educational attainment. Females are less likley to drop out of schools than males Females have higher reading scores as well Society discriminates against women occupationally and socially

7.2. Two responses of Coleman Study from 1982

7.2.1. First Finding: Private schools outperform public schools

7.2.2. Second Finding- Private schools more effective learning environment for students

8. Chapter 9: Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Différences Theory

8.1.1. Ogbu's microsociological perspective- Working class students adapt to the unequal aspects of the class structure.

8.1.2. Bourdieu's Concepts of social and cultural capital- More affluent families give their children access to cultural capital

8.2. School Centered explanations for educational inequality.

8.2.1. 1.School Financing-More affluent communities able to provide more than poorer districts.

8.2.2. 2.Effective School Research-Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do poorly simply because they attend inferior schools.

8.2.3. 3.Between School Differences- Explanation of why those who attend school in high socioeconomic communities achieve more.

8.2.4. 4.Within School Differences-Chararcteristics that affect the student within the school.

8.2.5. 5.Gender and Schooling-Schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life chances of women in a number of ways.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. 1.School-Buisness Partnership- Foundations and entrepreneurs have contributed significantly to education reform efforts.

9.1.2. 2.School-to-work Programs- School Based learning, Work based learning, and Connecting activities..

9.2. Reforms that affect education

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms-Reforms to help and benefit schools that need financial aid.

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone-Programs and activities for parents of children in Harlem and other underachieving communities.