History of Visual Communications

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1. Cave Paintings 28,000 B.C.

1.1. definition

1.1.1. First kind of visual communications

1.1.2. First attempt to communicate and record history

1.2. Lascaux Cave

1.2.1. discovered in 1940 by teenage boys

1.2.2. 1963, closed due to carbon dioxide damage

1.2.3. Created Lascaux ll to satisfy the people

1.3. 3 reasons why?

1.3.1. 1. Instructional

1.3.2. 2.religious/superstitious

1.3.3. 3. story telling

1.4. Altamira Cave

1.4.1. Located in Spain

1.4.2. Have a red hue due to the red clay in the soil

1.4.3. Discovered by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter, Maria

1.5. Chaunvet Pont d'Arc

1.5.1. Discoverd by Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Chistian Hillaire, and Jean Marie Chauvet

1.5.2. What was different about this site? Walls were scraped clear of debris Had a 3d effect fossilized remains

2. Cuneiform and the Sumerians 8,000 B.C.

2.1. What We Know about the Sumerians

2.1.1. 1. First Written Language

2.1.2. 2. Rules by a priest king

2.1.3. 3. Skilled artisans

2.1.4. 4. Music was very important

2.1.5. 5. Considered to be the cradle of civilization

2.1.6. 6. Akkadians invaded due to the prospering civilization

2.2. Cuneiform

2.2.1. Sumerians created Cuneiform, the first written language

2.2.2. Was created to help track all the business transactions

2.2.3. Development of the language Used clay tablets to to write the language Used wedge shaped reeds as styluses became more abstract Web shaped language now Allowed the Sumerians to become a sophisticated culture

2.2.4. Series of pictographs

2.3. Features of the Sumerians

2.3.1. Settled in the Sumer Region Due to fertile ground because of the bodies of water in the area

3. Egyptians 3150 B.C.

3.1. What We Know

3.1.1. 1. 600 B.C. invading armies discovered pyramids, tombs, temples, and hieroglyphics

3.1.2. 2. They believed it was very important to record and communicate information about religion and government

3.1.3. 3. Scribes became a new position to read and write for the military

3.1.4. 4. Temples were decorated with pictures and writings to show respect

3.1.5. 5. Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798 to undermine England's trade routes

3.1.6. 6. Rosetta Stone 1. Discovered near a fort that was being built for the French 2. Contains the languages of hieroglyphics, demotic, and greek 3. Chunks of the stone itself were missing 4. Resides in a british museum in 1802 5. Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphics His discovery was that he was able to match the symbols with the greek name of Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses inscription referred to King Ptolemy V Epiphanes at the time of his coronation around 196 B.C.

3.2. Hieroglyphics

3.2.1. 1. Came into existence of Cuneiform

3.2.2. 2. Is a formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements Logograms Visual symbols representing ideas

3.2.3. 3. word derived from hiero meaning sacred, and glyphic meaning writing

3.2.4. 4. Written on walls and papyrus papyrus substrate made from reeds native to Egypt. Process was criss crossed, flattened, dried, and then rubbed for smoothness.

3.2.5. 5. Books of the dead to help pharaohs find their way for the afterlife Books of the Dead

4. Phonetic Alphabet with Romans and Greeks 146 B.C.

4.1. Phoenician alphabet

4.1.1. Theories of the Origin of the Alphabet 1. Direct variation of hieroglyphics 2. Cuneiform based 3. Independent creation

4.1.2. What We Know 1. One spoken sound equals one sign 2. Every letter started with a consonant 3. Easier to learn than previous languages 4. Letter spread across Europe and Africa due to trade cultures 5. First widespread script 6. Used in multiple languages which allowed many people to learn how to write and read 7. Disintergrated the divisions based on the ability to read and write

4.2. Greek Alphabet

4.2.1. What We know 1. Adapted the phoenician alphabet letter forms 2. Considered world's first true alphabet Because the Greeks adapted some consonants to vowels

4.3. Roman Alphabet

4.3.1. What We Know 1. Romans used the Greek Alphabet but with variations 2. Had two writing styles 1. Rigid, formal style 2. Informal script 3. Created a serif 1. Finishing off stroke 2. Stonemasons added the little hooks to the tips of letters to prevent the chisel from slipping 3. Increased the legibility of the letter forms 4. Created baseline A line which letters sit on Made sure all lines were lined up and straightened 5. Created descenders Extends the baseline

5. The Codex and Illuminated Manuscript 400 A.D.

5.1. Types of New Print

5.1.1. Scrolls 1. Made of papyrus or separate sheets glued 2. rolled up, or wooden rollers at each end 3. Drawbacks such as only sequential access caused scribes and scholars to begin to ponder of new methods of recording 4. During this time, the Roman's handwriting changed by adding lowercase letters and puncuation

5.1.2. The Codex 1. It is a covered and bound collection of bound pages 2. Beats the scroll for three reasons 1. Compactness 2. Sturdiness 3. Easy accessibility 3. First codex was the bible 4. Made from parchment Proccess Replaced papyrus because it lasted longer 5. Also could be made from vellum A finer quality from young calves 6. Church continued to use the codex format for Bibles and scriptures Monastic monks became the scribes for the church

5.1.3. Illuminated Manuscript 1. A manuscript with illustrations 2. Illuminations refer to the borders, illustrations, and ornamintation 3. Used natural quill pens for highly intricate and detailed work Quills made from duck and geese feathers 4. Reserved only for religious texts due to the laborious work 5. Creation was declined and various invasions occurred.

5.2. Times

5.2.1. The Dark Ages The time period of cultural and book deterioration, fall of romans, and the renaissance

6. Gutenberg Press 1568

6.1. What We know

6.1.1. 1. Johannes Guetnberg is the proud creator 1. His father was a goldsmith and merchant 2. Moved away from his original hometown due to political reasons 3. After moving, he began exploring with metal typography 4. Also introduced oil-based ink 5. Looking for investors, Gutenberg met John Fust 6. John Fust became impatient, and sued Gutenberg for all his property 7. Fust and Schoeffer then took credit for the invention

6.1.2. 2. Gutenberg press was the first printing press 1. Printing press used movable letter sets that would press ink onto pieces of paper using a corkscrew method

6.1.3. 3. Developed the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

6.1.4. 4. First movable type was carved from wood and developed in China Movable Type 1. First made from wood 2. Type that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document 3. inspired Gutenberg experiment with metal casing instead of wood due to he lack of long lasting in the wood type

6.1.5. 5. First metal type was made from alloy of lead, tin , and antimony. Melted in low temperatures

6.1.6. 6. Used paper to press the ink onto Paper 1. Paper was made from wood pulp 2. Invented by Tsai Lun

6.1.7. 7. First book that was printed was a two-volume bible

7. Linotype Machine

7.1. What We Know

7.1.1. 1. Idea created by Clephane

7.1.2. 2. Wanted to find easier ways to transcribe notes

7.1.3. 3. Christopher Sholes invented the only successful typewriter

7.1.4. 4. Clephane continuously tested Sholes invented the only successful typerwriter

7.1.5. 5. Allowed type to be set mechanically

7.1.6. 6. Name originated from the ideal of typing an entire metal line once

7.1.7. 7. Developed the newspaper industry

7.1.8. 8. Had a 90 character keyboard: black keys were lower-case, white keys were upper-case, and blue keys were for punctuation, digits, etc.

8. History of Photography

8.1. What We Know

8.1.1. 1. The camera obscura was the first camera Obscura was used to observe light Invented in the 4th century It's a dark chamber, optical device that projects an image By the 17th century, the size had shrunk to a size of a portable box

8.1.2. 2. The name photography originated from Sir John Hershal; derived from greek words of light and reading

8.1.3. 3. Joseph Niepce created the first practical photographic process

8.1.4. 4. Louis Dequerre created the first practical photographic process called the Daguerreotype Used a light-sensitive sheet, created a positive image, took 30 minutes, if immersed in salt, created a permanent image

8.1.5. 5. William Fox Talbot created the Calotype process Exposed a paper producing a negative image instead Allowed duplicates to be made

8.1.6. 6. Archer created the Wet Collodion process Used a wet plate which was a wet glass. Created a negative, and reduced exposure time

8.1.7. 7. Richard Maddox created the dry process Substituted the plates with gelatin Gelatin is composed of animal bones and fur

8.1.8. 8. Eastman then took the dry process and then created a roll film roll film is a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls, light sensitive coating

8.1.9. 9. Eastman then founded the Kodak company Marketed the Brownie which was a camera for all ages and experiences

8.1.10. 10. James Clerk Maxwell then took the first color photograph

8.1.11. 11. Edwin Land then patented the invention of instant photography

8.1.12. 12. Muybridge then created the motion picture photography

9. History of Computers

9.1. What We Know

9.1.1. 1. Konrad Zuse created the first freely programmable computer

9.1.2. 2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper created the Mark series of computers Used for Navy gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.1.3. 3. Fist commercial computer was the UAC designed by John Preseper and John Mauckley UAC stood for universal automatic

9.1.4. 4. IBM developed John Backus IBM stands for international business machines

9.1.5. 5. First programming language was Fortran

9.1.6. 6. First computer game was space war

9.1.7. 7. Douglas Engelbart invented the first computer mouse Sought to make this tool as a more user-friendly tool Was called a mouse because the tail stuck to the computer

9.1.8. 8. First internet was called ARPANE Was used to protect the flow of military installations

9.1.9. 9. First memory disk was the Floppy Disk Introduced by IBM

9.1.10. 10. Robert Metcalfe developed the first ehternet

9.1.11. 11. By the 70s, Scelbi, Altair, Ibm, Apple, etc. computers were launched

9.1.12. 12. Bill Gates then created the MS-DOS

9.1.13. 13. Apple then introduced the Lisa in 1983 that had a gui

9.1.14. 14. Xerox created the first gui

9.1.15. 15. Apple then introduced the Macintosh in 1984

9.1.16. 16. Windows then introduced the Windows operation system