EM Waves

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EM Waves создатель Mind Map: EM Waves

1. Properties

1.1. Transverse waves

1.2. Electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular

1.3. Transfer energy from one point to another

1.4. Travel at a speed of 300000000m/s in vaccum

1.5. Obey the laws of reflection and refraction

2. Electromagnetic Spectrum

2.1. A continuous range of waves with extremely short wavelengths at one end and extremely long wavelengths at the other end

2.2. Components classified according to wavelength or frequency

2.2.1. In order of wavelength

2.2.1.1. Radio waves (0.1 to 10000)m

2.2.1.2. Microwaves (0.1 to 0.0001)m

2.2.1.3. Infrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet rays (0.0001 to 0.00000001)m

2.2.1.4. X-Rays (0.0000000 to 0.0000000001)m

2.2.1.5. Gamma rays (0.0000000001 to 0.000000000001)m

2.2.2. In order of frequency

2.2.2.1. Radio waves (10^4 to 10^9)Hz

2.2.2.2. Microwaves (10^9 to 10^12)Hz

2.2.2.3. Infrared (10^12 to 10^14)Hz

2.2.2.4. Visible Light (10^14 to 10^15)Hz

2.2.2.5. Ultraviolet rays (10^15 to 10^16)Hz

2.2.2.6. X-Rays (10^15 to 10^18)Hz

2.2.2.7. Gamma Rays (10^18 to 10^20)Hz

3. Types of EM Waves

3.1. Radio Waves

3.1.1. Used for transmission of signal and data.

3.2. Microwaves

3.2.1. Easy to control and direct.

3.3. Infrared

3.3.1. Produced by hot objects. Can be seen by some animals

3.4. Visible Light

3.4.1. Produced by luminous objects. Crucial for human sight. Used in data transfer in telecommunications.

3.5. Ultraviolet rays

3.5.1. Stimulates human skin to produce vitamin D.Also causes tanning and sunburn.

3.6. X-rays

3.6.1. Able to penetrate many materials. Used in the medical field.

3.7. Gamma rays

3.7.1. Dangerous rays coming from nuclear explosions and atomic bombs, they can cause cell and tissue injury.

4. Applications of EM Waves

4.1. Radio waves

4.1.1. Radio broadcasting

4.1.2. Transmitting television programmes

4.1.3. Telecommunications

4.1.4. Wireless networking

4.2. Microwaves

4.2.1. Satellite communication

4.2.2. For cooking food

4.2.3. Remote sensing (radar)

4.3. Infrared

4.3.1. Night vision binoculars

4.3.2. Thermal imaging

4.3.3. Remote controls

4.3.4. Motion detectors

4.4. Visible light

4.4.1. Optical fibers for data transmission

4.4.2. Endoscopy

4.4.3. Photography

4.5. Ultraviolet rays

4.5.1. Sunbeds

4.5.2. Fluorescence effect

4.6. X-rays

4.6.1. Scanners in airports

4.6.2. Detecting cracks in pipes and buildings

4.6.3. Radiography

4.7. Gamma rays

4.7.1. Sterilization of medical equipment

4.7.2. Raidotherapy

5. Ionizing radiation

5.1. High frequency waves such as ultraviolet waves and above.

5.2. Causes electrons to gain enough energy to break free from the atoms, causing the atoms to become charged and unstable.

5.3. Causes premature aging, sterility, cancer and even death

5.4. Damages DNA. If DNA is damaged in reproductive cells, mutation can be passed to future generations.