Начать. Это бесплатно
или регистрация c помощью Вашего email-адреса

1. By: Iris Lee


2.1. Mediterranean Sea

2.1.1. Encouraged people to trade, to travel and to learn from the others. Ideas from Middle East, Asia, Africa and Europe spread easily.

2.1.2. All civilization flourish and grow stronger

2.2. Had everything to sustain large numbers of people

2.2.1. Population grew rapidly and towns formed

2.3. Greece and Rome

2.3.1. Two most important early civilization in Europe

2.4. Alexander the Great

2.4.1. In the 4th century B.C.E.

2.4.2. Conquered many lands and spread Greek culture as far east as India

2.5. The Greek Empire

2.5.1. Weakened and fell to the Romans about 150 B.C.E.

2.6. The Romans

2.6.1. Borrowed Greek attitudes and learning and made them their own Gathered thinkers and builders from Asia,eastern Europe, and the Middle East

2.6.2. The Roman Legions Controlled most of Europe, southeast Asia, and northern Africa. Britain, Italy, Egypt, Spain, Greece, north coast of Africa, Portugal, Turkey, France and Germany For more than 6 centuries Roman Legions: Roman armed forces

2.7. Mediterranean environment

2.7.1. Fertile soil

2.7.2. Plenty of rainfall

2.7.3. Sunshine

2.7.4. Climate was moderate

2.7.5. Surplus of food could produced

2.7.6. Population grew

2.7.7. Towns formed


3.1. They copied and developed Greeks arts and architecture

3.2. Latin provided a common language for the whole empire

3.3. Developed a code of laws

3.3.1. Roman law protected all peoples from war and from violent outlaws and pirates

3.4. Pax Romana/ Roman Peace

3.4.1. Encouraged trade and the exchange of ideas

3.4.2. Price was paid Roman demanded taxes, slaves, and submission

3.4.3. Not everyone benefited under Roman law Women, non-Romans and slaves

3.5. The Fall of Rome

3.5.1. In 410 C.E.

3.5.2. The centre of European civilization was conquered by the Goth A Germanic people One of the European peoples that spoke a Germanic language

3.5.3. Roman Empire had stretched from Iran to Scotland and from Upper Egypt to the North Sea It collapsed Only the Eastern Roman Empire remained stronge

3.6. After the Fall

3.6.1. Greek & Roman Art, architecture, drama, literature, sports, mythology, philosophy, laws, and system of government were reborn in various forms

3.6.2. Europe experienced a period called" barbarous."

3.7. Why Did Rome Fall?

3.7.1. Death of an Empire Combination internal and external forces Following forces contributed to fall

3.7.2. Small Businesses Suffered when slaves were used Supply goods and services

3.7.3. Entertainment Spent more money than should Also expensive luxuries

3.7.4. Diseases Brought by soldiers Killed thousands

3.7.5. Roman Republic Ended in 30 B.C.E. Respected individual freedom

3.7.6. Religious New ones weakened will of people

3.7.7. Large Empire Variety of terrain

3.7.8. The Fall Grew weak-attacks by Germanic peoples

3.8. Barbarians

3.8.1. Was anyone not Greek or Roman


4.1. Fought wars and established settlements

4.2. Farmers

4.3. Loved violence & making wars

4.4. Armed with a throwing axe called a "FRANCISCA"

4.5. Both genders were found of jewelry

4.6. Both genders wore their hair long

4.7. Frank=Free

4.8. The Merovingians

4.8.1. Ruled the franks for almost 3000 years

4.8.2. Clovis I The most successful ruler Founded the country of France and made Paris its capital After his death The kingdom divided among his children

4.8.3. Become famous for its treachery & murderous infighting.

4.8.4. King and Queens committed murders

4.8.5. Many were killed by their own family

4.8.6. Next two centuries Was weakened by this constantly fighting Kingdom fell into chaos

4.9. The Laws of the Franks

4.9.1. Differed greatly from Roman code

4.9.2. They were called the "Salic Code" Salian Franks Who settled in France Placed monetary value on every piece of property and on every person If property was stolen or a person injured or killed a fine was paid Wergild When a person was killed.... Crime and Punishment Punished by lashes, slavery in mines, banishment, torture, or death Fines

4.10. Everyday Life Among the Franks

4.10.1. Social classes Rich & Poor The group the one belongs to in a society. Class can be determined by money, role in society, or one's parentage

4.10.2. 60% of people were serfs, or peasants Worked the land of their lord's manor Considered free not slaves Serfs were not allow to move away from the maor Serfs were at the mercy of the weather Lords or rulers could steal their crops away Merchants often tried to profit from the misfortunes of ordinary people by raising prices when food was scarce


5.1. In 800

5.1.1. Charlemagne was crowned the emperor of the Romans Pope Leo III

5.2. In 768 C.E.

5.2.1. Charlemagne came to power in western Europe

5.3. Charlemagne's father

5.3.1. Pepin the Short Made himself king by throwing out the last of the Merovingian rulers

5.3.2. Pope agreed to recognize Pepin as king because of his father Charles Martel who had defeated a Muslim army that had threatened to conquer Europe in 732

5.4. Unlike other Germanic rulers

5.4.1. he was very interested in rebuilding civilization

5.5. Expanded the old Merovingian Empire

5.5.1. In many direction

5.6. Carolingian Empire

5.6.1. Charlemagne's empire from about 770 to 814

5.6.2. gave much of western Europe a brief rest

5.7. In Aachen

5.7.1. Charlemagne governed his empire from palace

5.7.2. Germany

5.8. Allowed local governments much freedom

5.9. Sent out agents called " MISSIDOMINICI "

5.9.1. The lord's messenger

5.10. Created single code of laws

5.11. Tried to made things better for the serfs and tradespeople

5.12. Christianity

5.12.1. Charlemagne defeated the Saxons and insisted them to convert to Christianity

5.12.2. If the Saxon leader refused, Charlemagne ordered his soldiers to kill about 4000 Saxons in single day

5.13. Charlemagne's Renaissance

5.13.1. Improving education

5.13.2. Established new schools in monasteries

5.13.3. Encouraged the learning of the Latin classics

5.13.4. An energetic and thoughtful ruer

5.13.5. Took a keen interest in receiving the practice of architecture Many stone churches and palaces built in France & Germany

5.13.6. Many interests Science Literature talking with interesting people

5.14. Carolingian Renaissance

5.15. Charlemagne's Death

5.15.1. 72 years old

5.15.2. All his works fell apart


6.1. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes

6.1.1. Driving out the native Celtic peoples A western European culture. The Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Cornish and Bretons are all Celts

6.2. Germanic invaders began to settle in Britain and pushed the Celts into Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland and across the sea to Ireland

6.3. The Celtic language and culture disappeared from the seven kingdoms

6.4. The Anglo-Saxons

6.4.1. Farmers

6.4.2. Shared the hard work

6.5. Skilled metal workers

6.6. Great storytellers

6.6.1. Created wonderful epic BEOWULF

6.7. Beginning of the ninth century

6.7.1. Suffered from devastating Viking Raids Anglo-Saxons England

6.8. Alfred the Great

6.8.1. Lost many battles with the Vikings before he learned how to beat them

6.8.2. Left western and southern England united and prosperous Prosperous:thriving

6.9. England as a whole and would suffer from a deadly combination of weak kings and Vikings invaders until the time of William the Conqueror

6.10. The Pivotal Role of the Irish

6.10.1. The Celts Settled on the western and northern edge of the British Isles Practiced a form of nature worship Druidism They fought in bloody battles Kept slaves Made human sacrifices

6.10.2. St. Patrick In the 5th centuries Became the patron saint of Ireland He bought to the Irish both Christianity and a healthy respect Ireland Few cities large monastic communities sprang up in the countryside and along the coasts Monasteries Irish monks


7.1. On Easter Sunday in the year 855

7.1.1. A Viking force attacked and plundered Paris Striking a blow at the very heart of Charlemagne's empire France was not the only target

7.1.2. The Vikings were everywhere

7.2. Their war parties devastated whole regions in the Low Country

7.2.1. modern Netherlands and Belgium. Ireland and England

7.3. They roamed into the Mediterranean Sea

7.3.1. They attacked Spain and Italy

7.3.2. Sailed down the great rivers of Russia all the way to Constantinople

7.4. Came from the North

7.4.1. Looking for plunder and glory

7.4.2. Traveled in swift longships Allowed them to strike without warning Disappear quickly before local rulers could raise a force to oppose them Raiding forces ranged from the crew of a single ship to large fleets of a hundred ships or more

7.5. The Viking Reputation

7.5.1. Mercilessly destructive people thought they had been sent by God to punish the world for its wickedness

7.5.2. In the early raids, before they began to settle in lands such as England and France Common practice was to kill or enslave every man, woman, and child they found

7.5.3. Monarchs & church leaders Were terrified They paid the Vikings to leave their lands

7.5.4. In England Vikings took payments called Danegeld Ethelred the Unready Over few years, French monarchs paid the Vikings almost 300kg of gold and 15000kg of silver

7.5.5. Only a few rulers, such as Charlemagne and Alfred the Great, could fight the Vikings effectively But weren't be able to stop the raids completely

7.6. Everyday Life Among the Vikings

7.6.1. Farmers & Fisher Lived in small villages close to the sea

7.6.2. Came from the Scandinavia Norway, Sweden, and Denmark Probably began their raids because the farmland available in Scandinavia could not support the growing population

7.6.3. Lived at the ends of fjords Fjord: a long, narrow, salt-water bay with high cliffs along its sides Or wherever else they could find fertile land

7.6.4. Men & women shared the work Weaving were always done by women

7.6.5. Free Viking women Had many rights under the law Own property Could divorce their spouses Could sue in court

7.6.6. Gunnhild Mother of kings A legendary leader

7.6.7. Freydis Eriksdottir the sister of Leif the Lucky Led an expedition to Newfoundland early in the 11th

7.6.8. Thralls Either been taken captive on Viking raids or been sold into slavery Because they could not pay debts or fines Had no legal rights Could be killed by their master at any time The children of thralls automatically became slaves

7.6.9. Had rich culture

7.6.10. Skilled woodworkers and smiths

7.6.11. The keepers of Viking history and legend were called skalds Skald: a Scandinavian poet who recited poems at formal gatherings

7.6.12. Viking Law and Government Great lawmakers Designed many laws to protect people and their property The laws weren't written down Law Speakers memorized the la and recited it as needed Fined criminals Dangerous offenders were punished more harshly The most dreaded penalty was to be declared an outlaw Anyone could kill an outlaw on sight and then be entitled to some of his or her property

7.7. The End of the Viking Age

7.7.1. Ended in 11th century

7.7.2. European monarchs grew stronger and leanred how to deal with their northern enemies

7.7.3. English monarchs gave half of England, the Danelaw, to Viking lords Who then protected their new lands from other Vikings

7.7.4. The king of France gave the Viking Rollo the province of Normandy to rule and protect

7.7.5. Viking settlements in North America and Greenland were destroyed or disappeared

7.7.6. The people of Denmark and Norway became Christian

7.7.7. By the middle of the 11th century The Viking age was over forever

7.7.8. Free Vikings met regularly in a kind of parliament called a Thing Thing: a parliament where free adults could give their opinions on important matters. Viking kings were not crowned; instead, they were lifted up standing on shields, at the Thing