Europe's early middle ages

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Europe's early middle ages создатель Mind Map: Europe's early middle ages

1. The Mediterranean world

1.1. had everything necessary to sustain large number of people: fertile soil, plenty of rainfall and sunshine, and a climate that was moderate.

1.2. The Mediterranean sea itself formed a transportation route that encouraged people to travel widely to trade and to learn from each other.

1.3. The Greeks eagerly studied philosophy, which is usually defined as the pursuit of the ideas.

1.4. The Greek Empire weakened and fell to the Romans about 150 B.C.E.

1.5. Alexander the Great conquered many lands and spread Greek culture as far east as India.

1.6. The Mediterranean Sea itself formed a transportation route that encouraged people to travel widely to trade and to learn from each other.

1.7. The two most important early European civilization were those of Greece and Rome.

1.8. The Greeks eagerly studied philosophy, which is usually defined as the pursuit of ideas.

1.9. The Greeks also made great advances in art, architecture, drama, literature, medicine, and science.

2. The Romans

2.1. The Romans admired the achievements of the ancient Greeks.

2.2. highly literate people.

2.3. Scholars and poets wrote thousands of books, and great libraries were filled with ancient works from Greece and Egypt.

2.4. Colosseum could seat 50,000 spectators.

2.5. Colosseum was the scene of executions, mock naval battles, and combats between gladiators.

2.6. The Fall of Rome

2.6.1. 410 C.E. the Mediterranean world was shocked by the news that the city of Rome, the centre of European civilization, had been conquered by the Goths, a Germanic people.

2.6.2. The Roman Empire, which had once stretched from Iran to Scotland and from Upper Egypt to the North Sea, had collapsed.

2.6.3. Historians often disagree about why Rome fell. Some believe that all civilizations have a life span and that they eventually grow old and die, almost like all living things.

2.7. After the Fall

2.7.1. though the accomplishments of Greek and Roman civilizations were great, they were to be lost for centuries after the fall of Rome.

2.7.2. Ages later, Greek and Roman art, architecture, drama, literature, sports, mythology, philosophy, laws, and systems of government would all be reborn in various forms to inspire and enrich modern civilizations.

2.7.3. For centuries Rome had been in contact with Germanic peoples to the north and east.

2.7.4. these peoples were known to the Greeks and Romans as Barbarians, meaning "people who speak an unfamiliar language."

2.7.5. As the Western Roman Empire collapsed and the Roman Legions withdrew to Rome, Germanic peoples moved into Roman provinces such as Gaul (France), Britain, and Spain.

2.7.6. Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Goths, Vandals, lombards, and Franks were attracted to the rich of the Roman Empire.

2.7.7. Civilization in western Europe began to wither away and Roads fell into disrepair, travel became dangerous, cities decayed and were deserted.

2.7.8. Western Europe slipped into an age of chaos and savagery, torn by violence and ignorance.

2.7.9. The last Roman emperor lost his power, to 800. In that year, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans.

3. The Franks

3.1. Conquered much of the Roman province of Gaul which is now called France in the late fourth century and early fifth century.

3.2. Had a special weapon called francisca.

3.3. Frank

3.3.1. Free

3.4. The Merovingians

3.4.1. Ruled Franks for 300 years.

3.4.2. Clovis I The most successful ruler in the family, reigned from 481 to 511 C.E. Founded the country of France and made Paris the capital of France. After death, the kingdom was divided among his children.

3.4.3. Became famous for its treachery and murderous infighting.

3.4.4. The Laws of the Franks When the laws of the Franks were written down and collected, they were called the Salic Code. Salic Code Placed a monetary value on every piece of property and on every person. If property was stolen or a person injured or killed, a fine called wergild had to be paid to the owner of the property or the victim's family. In the case of murder, the family could refuse to accept the fine, and instead could demand the guilty person's death.

4. Charlemagne

4.1. Came to power in western Europe in 768 C.E.

4.2. Very interested in rebuilding civilization.

4.3. Crowned Emperors of the Romans by Pope Leo III in 800 C.E.

4.4. Charlemagne's Renaissance

4.4.1. Established new schools in monasteries and encouraged the learning of the Latin classics.

4.4.2. Took a keen interest in reviving the practice of architecture and had many stone churches and palaces built in France and Germany.

4.4.3. Interested in science and literature , and he loved talking with interesting people.

4.4.4. Died at the age of seventy-two, after ruling for forty-seven years.

5. Anglo-Saxons

5.1. Warriors from the area now known as Germany the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes moved in, driving out the native Celtic peoples in the fifth century when the roman soldiers left Britain.

5.2. The Celts

5.2.1. Had once been a powerful people.

5.2.2. large numbers of Germanic people began to settle in Britain and pushed the Celts into Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland.

5.2.3. Their language and culture disappeared from the seven kingdoms established by the invaders, who became known as the Anglo-Saxons, or English.

5.3. Farmers.

5.4. Lived in small villages.

5.5. Skilled metal worker.

5.6. Created Beowolf.

5.7. Suffered from devastating Viking raids at the beginning of the ninth century.

5.8. Alfred the Great

5.8.1. Early ruler of the Anglo-Saxon England.

5.8.2. Lost many battles with the Vikings before he learned how to beat them.

5.8.3. At his death, he left western and southern England united and prosperous .

6. The Vikings

6.1. On Easter Sunday in 855 C.E., Vikings attacked Paris.

6.2. War parties devastated whole regions in the Low Countries, Ireland, and England.

6.3. Came from the north looking for plunder and glory.

6.4. The Viking reputation

6.4.1. Mercilessly destructive.

6.4.2. Some people were so terrified that they to pay the vikings to leave their lands.

6.5. Everyday life among the Vikings

6.5.1. Were farmers and fishers.

6.5.2. Came from Scandinavia.

6.5.3. Highly skilled wood workers and smiths.

6.5.4. The keepers of Viking history and legends were called skalds.