Chapter 1 Europe's Early Middle Ages

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1. The Romans

1.1. The romans admired the achievements of the ancient greeks, so they copied them.

1.2. The romans developed a code of laws.

1.3. Latin provided a common language for the whole empire.

1.4. Roman laws protected all peoples from war and violence.

1.5. The Pax Romana or Roman peace,encourage trade and the exchange of ideas.

1.6. Woman, non-Romans, and slaves were all denied the rights of Roman citizenship.

1.7. The Fall of Rome

1.7.1. 410 c.e, the city of Rome was conquered by goths, a Germanic people.

1.7.2. only the eastern roman empire, with its capital in constantinople, remained strong.

1.8. After the Fall

1.8.1. the accomplishment of greek and roman civilizations were to be lost for centuries after the fall of rome.

1.8.2. These peoples-Angles, Saxons, Jutes,Goth, Vandal, Lombards, and Franks-were attracted to the riches of the Roman empire.

1.8.3. They pushed out the Celtish people and other native peoples. Civilization in western Europe began to wither away.

2. The Mediterranean world

2.1. The Mediterranean environment had everything necessary to sustain large numbers of people.

2.2. The Mediterranean sea itself formed a transportation route that encourage people to travel widely to trade and to learn from each other.

2.3. Greece and Rome were the 2 important Europe civilizations.

2.3.1. They also made great advances in art, architecture, drama, literature,medicine, and science.

2.3.2. The Greek empire fell to the Romans about 150 b.c.e.

2.3.3. The Roman legion were so powerful that the Roman empire at its peak controlled most of Europe.

3. The franks

3.1. The Franks were farmers, they also loved making war.

3.1.1. The Merovingians royal family ruled the franks for almost 300 years.

3.1.2. The most successful ruler of the family is Clovis I reigned from 481 to 511 c.e. After his death,the kingdom was divided among his children's,who were not very capable leaders.

3.1.3. For 2 centuries, the Merovingians royal family was weakened by this constant infighting, and the kingdom fell into chaos.

3.2. "Franks"-meant free."Franchise", the english word for the right to vote, comes from this Frankish word.

3.3. The franks had their own legal code, which differed greatly from roman law.

3.3.1. The code is called the Salic code, after the Salian Franks, who had settled in France. If property was stolen or a person injured or killed, a fine called wergild had to paid to the owner of the property or the victim's of the family.

3.4. The franks had social classes:some people were incredibly poor and some were very rich.

3.4.1. The majority os people at this time were serf, or peasant,people who worked the land on their lord's manor, or estate.

4. Charlemagne

4.1. Charlemagne came to power in western europe in 768 c.e.

4.1.1. He established new schools in monasteries and encouraged the learning of Latin classics. He succeeded in bringing about a rebirth of learning and the arts.

4.2. His father, Pepin the short, had made himself king by throwing out the last of the merovingian ruler.

4.2.1. He expanded the old merovingian empire in very direction. He was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo iii

4.3. the pope agreed

4.4. He created a single code of laws for the whole empire.

5. The Anglo-Saxon and the Celts

5.1. Angles,Saxons,and Jutes-moved in driving out the native celtics peoples and pushed them into Ireland.

5.2. celtics language and culture disappeared.

5.3. anglo-saxons, like the franks, were farmers.

5.3.1. men and woman shared the hard work work of agriculture between them.

5.3.2. The Anglo-Saxons were also great storytellers who created wonderful epics, such as Beowulf.

5.4. Alfred the great, an early ruler of anglo-saxons, which he lost many battles with the vikings.

5.5. Alfred left western and southern England united and prosperous.

5.6. England suffer viking invaders until the time of William the conqueror.

6. The Vikings

6.1. Vikings were Barbarians from Scandinavia.

6.1.1. They were highly skilled woodworkers and smiths.

6.1.2. Vikings were farmers. men and woman were treated equally. free viking woman had many rights under the law. anyone could kill an outlaw on sight and then be entitled to some of his/ers property.

6.2. vikings force attacked charlemgne empire.

6.2.1. fource attacked and plundered paris.

6.2.2. Viking age ended in the eleventh century.

6.2.3. Vikings roamed into the mediterranean sea, and attacked spain,Italy,England,Belgium,Russia and Ireland.

6.3. In England, the vikings took payments called Danegeld from rulers such as Ethelred the unready.

6.3.1. french monarch paid the vikings almost 300 kg of gold and 15 000kg of silver.