CH 21 - Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement 1890 - 1920

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CH 21 - Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement 1890 - 1920 создатель Mind Map: CH 21 - Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement 1890 - 1920

1. 21.2 - Progressivism at the Grassroots Level

1.1. Expanding Democracy

1.1.1. concept of "perfected democracy"

1.1.1.1. key to the growth and health of the country

1.1.1.1.1. progressives believed that Americans needed to take back control of their government

1.1.2. moves towards "perfected democracy"

1.1.2.1. direct primary

1.1.2.1.1. Prior to this, the only people who had a say in selecting candidates for elections were delegates at conventions

1.1.2.2. 3 state level reforms

1.1.2.2.1. initiative, referendum, and recall

1.1.3. federal level reforms

1.1.3.1. progressives wanted fairer representation of state constituencies in the U.S. Congress

1.1.3.1.1. 17th Amendment

1.2. Expertise and Efficiency

1.2.1. commission system

1.2.1.1. election of a number of commissioners, each responsible for one specific operation of the city

1.2.1.1.1. ex: water commissioner, fire commissioner, police commissioner, etc.

1.2.1.2. no single political “boss” in charge

1.2.1.2.1. crime and corruption decreased

1.2.1.3. in response to the favortism of machine politics

1.2.2. city manger system

1.2.2.1. separated daily city operations from both the electoral process and political parties

1.2.2.1.1. citizens elected city councilors who would pass laws and handle ALL legislative issues

1.2.2.2. city manager

1.2.2.2.1. not a politician

1.3. Social Justice

1.3.1. inequality reform

1.3.1.1. African Americans

1.3.1.2. Women

1.3.1.3. Other ethnic groups

1.3.2. circumstantial reform

1.3.2.1. Discrimination

1.3.2.2. Health

1.3.2.3. Poverty

1.3.3. women were at the forefront of various reform movements

1.3.3.1. settlement house movement

1.3.3.2. early grassroots efforts

1.3.3.2.1. education

1.3.3.2.2. health care to working-class women and children

1.3.3.2.3. social services

1.3.4. 1904 - National Child Labor Committee (NCLC)

1.3.4.1. urged the passage of labor legislation to ban child labor

1.3.4.2. 1900 US Census

1.3.4.2.1. 1 out of every 6 children between the ages of 5-10 were working

1.3.4.2.2. 50% increase over the previous decade

1.3.4.3. 1912 - the NCLC succeeds!

1.3.4.3.1. President Taft signed into law the U.S. Children's Bureau

1.3.4.4. 1916 - passing of the Keating-Owen Act

1.3.4.4.1. prohibited the interstate trade of any goods produced via child labor

1.3.4.5. 1938 - Fair Labor Standards Act

1.3.4.5.1. outlawed the interstate trade of any goods produced via children under the age of 16

1.3.5. 1911 - Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

1.3.5.1. 146 dead

1.3.5.1.1. most young immigrant women

1.3.5.2. management had blocked doors and fire escapes

1.3.5.2.1. to control workers & keep out union organizers

1.3.5.3. many died because they were trapped or jumped to their death

1.3.5.4. helped convince politicians of the need for workplace safety laws and codes

1.4. Radical Progressives

1.4.1. wave of radicalism

1.4.1.1. some believed only complete reform could save America

1.4.1.2. social inequality

1.4.2. 2 most prominent movements

1.4.2.1. Socialist Party of America (SPA)

1.4.2.1.1. founded in 1901

1.4.2.1.2. Eugene Debs

1.4.2.2. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

1.4.2.2.1. founded in 1905

1.4.3. SPA & IWW

1.4.3.1. both reflected elements of the Progressive desire for democracy and social justice

1.4.3.2. differed only in degree and strategy

2. 21.3 - New Voices for Women and African Americans

2.1. Leaders in the Women's Movement

2.1.1. Anti-Suffragist Movement

2.1.1.1. believed that women could better influence the country from outside the realm of politics

2.1.2. Suffragist Movement

2.1.2.1. believed the right to vote was a universal one

2.1.3. separate spheres

2.1.3.1. private v. public

2.1.3.1.1. women emerge more in the public sphere

2.2. Leaders in the Early Civil Rights Movement

2.2.1. Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise" speech

2.2.1.1. Washington was a prominent African American leader at the outset of the Progressive Era

2.2.1.2. called upon African Americans to work diligently for their own uplift and prosperity

2.2.1.2.1. rather than preoccupy themselves with political and civil rights

2.2.2. racism still prevalent

2.2.2.1. South

2.2.2.1.1. African Americans

2.2.2.2. West

2.2.2.2.1. Mexican Americans and immigrants

2.2.3. Southern reformers

2.2.3.1. considered segregation as a "progressive" solution to racial violence

3. 21.4 - Progressivism in the White House

3.1. Theodore Roovelt

3.1.1. features of his "Square Deal"

3.1.1.1. public health

3.1.1.1.1. Meat Inspection Act of 1906

3.1.1.1.2. Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906

3.1.1.2. public land

3.1.1.2.1. U.S. Forestry Service

3.1.1.2.2. Roosevelt created:

3.1.2. Square Deal was his own version of Progressivism

3.2. Woodrow Wilson

3.2.1. "New Freedom" agenda

3.2.1.1. pieces of legislation

3.2.1.1.1. Revenue Act of 1913

3.2.1.1.2. Federal Reserve Act

3.2.1.2. the plan:

3.2.1.2.1. regulate banks and big businesses

3.2.1.2.2. lower tariff rates to increase international trade

4. 21.1 - Origins of Progressivism

4.1. Late 19th c. (late 1800s)

4.1.1. numerous challenges

4.1.1.1. Progressive Era : response to The Gilded Age

4.2. Muckrakers

4.2.1. group of journalists and writers

4.2.1.1. sparked the progressive movement

4.2.2. different from yellow journalists

4.2.2.1. yellow journalists were focussed on selling newspapers

4.2.3. exposed problems within society

4.2.3.1. urged the public the seek solutions

4.2.3.2. problems:

4.2.3.2.1. corrupt machine politics

4.2.3.2.2. poor factory working conditions

4.2.3.2.3. poor living conditions of the working class

4.2.3.2.4. trusts

4.2.4. President Theodore Roosevelt

4.2.4.1. considered himself a progressive

4.2.4.2. he knew many investigative journalists

4.2.4.2.1. HOWEVER - he did not like how they forced agendas into national politics

4.2.5. Jacob Riis

4.2.5.1. journalist and photographer

4.2.5.1.1. his book - How the Other Half Lives (1890)

4.2.6. Ida Tarbell

4.2.6.1. arguably the most famous female muckraker

4.2.6.2. wrote a series of articles about the dangers of Rockefeller's powerful monopoly - Standard Oil

4.2.6.2.1. her articles followed Henry Demarest Lloyd's book - Wealth Against Commonwealth (1894)

4.2.7. Lincoln Steffens

4.2.7.1. explored corruption in city politics

4.2.8. Ray Standard Baker

4.2.8.1. researched unsafe working conditions

4.2.8.1.1. low pay in coal mines

4.3. Features of Progressivism

4.3.1. muckrakers successfully drew attention to the problems in American society

4.3.1.1. more often then not, they prompted real change

4.3.2. Gilded Age

4.3.2.1. federal gov. took a hands-off approach

4.3.3. muckrakers strove for a perfection of democracy

4.3.3.1. wanted expansion of suffrage

4.3.3.1.1. advocated for those that were excluded from political discussions based on health, education, sex, or race

4.3.4. Progressives wanted democracy to be balanced

4.3.4.1. wanted a reliance on science and technology

4.3.5. contradictory at times

4.3.5.1. did not like party politics

4.3.5.1.1. but also wanted government to regulate the economy

4.3.6. Saw themselves as agents of social justice and reform

4.3.7. Progressive movement

4.3.7.1. grassroots level

4.3.8. 1901

4.3.8.1. Theodore Roosevelt became president

4.3.8.1.1. the federal government begins to engage in progressive reforms