Romantic Era (ca. 1780-1910)

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Romantic Era (ca. 1780-1910) создатель Mind Map: Romantic Era (ca. 1780-1910)

1. Beethoven

1.1. Early

1.1.1. Known as a performer; Composed for piano

1.1.2. 1801: Acknowledges hearing loss

1.2. Middle

1.2.1. Eroica, Symphony No. 3

1.2.1.1. Almost dedicated to Napoleon

1.2.1.2. Heroic Theme

1.2.2. Symphony No. 5

1.2.2.1. Organicism: spinning out of a motive

1.2.3. Symphony No. 6

1.2.3.1. Pastoral: Vaguely programattic

1.3. Late

1.3.1. Composes for arts sake, isolates himself

1.3.2. Symphony No. 9 "Ode to Joy"

1.3.2.1. Sets the standard for all symphonies to come

2. Opera 1810-1850

2.1. Rossini

2.1.1. Composed very quickly at the beginning of his career

2.1.1.1. Formal structure

2.1.1.1.1. Cantabile

2.1.1.1.2. Cabaletta

2.1.1.1.3. Imbroglio

2.1.1.2. Aimed for commercial success

2.1.2. Barber of Seville

2.1.2.1. light, everescent style

2.2. Bellini

2.2.1. Defined the bel canto style

2.2.1.1. art of fine singing

2.2.2. Norma

2.3. Donizetti

2.3.1. Lucia di Lammermoor

2.3.1.1. The prototype for the "mad scene"

2.3.1.1.1. Coloratura singing

2.4. Weber

3. Schubert

3.1. Known for elevating the Lied

3.1.1. Lied= Song; Voice with piano accompaniment

3.1.2. Lieder became important for conveying national identity (German)

3.1.3. Poetic forms

3.1.3.1. Ballad

3.1.3.1.1. Through composed

3.1.3.1.2. "Der Erlkönig"

3.1.3.2. Lyric

3.1.3.2.1. Stanzas and refrains

3.1.3.2.2. "Der Heidenröslein"

3.2. Character pieces for piano

3.3. Unfinished symphony: Intended to follow in the footsteps of Beethoven

4. Paganini

4.1. Violin virtuoso

4.2. Set high standards for the instrument: colegno, trills, ornaments

4.3. Inspired Liszt

4.4. Caprices: featured complicated double stops and left hand pizzicato

5. Liszt

5.1. virtuoso pianist

5.2. concert etudes

5.2.1. hand crossing, trills, tremelos, etc.

6. French Grand Opera

6.1. Paris: home of the largest theatrical spectacles

6.2. Associated with librettist Eugene Scribe

6.3. All aspects of production are expanded

6.4. Fewer arias, but still requires virtuoso singers

6.5. Meyerbeer

6.5.1. Les Huguenot

6.5.1.1. Set the standard for grand opera

6.5.1.2. Rarely performed today - too expensive

7. New German School

7.1. Composers

7.1.1. Liszt

7.1.1.1. symphonic poems

7.1.2. Wagner

7.1.3. Berlioz

7.2. Franz Brendel: philosopher who led the movement

7.2.1. music history was a series of emancipations

7.3. Zukunftmusik

7.3.1. Future music

7.4. New German School opposed by Eduard Hanslick and the traditionalists

7.4.1. Traditionalist: Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, Joachim

7.4.2. Hanslick valued music for its absolute and abstract character

7.4.3. Preferred traditional genres/formal structures (in opposition to views of the New German School).

8. Outsiders, 1820-1860

8.1. Chopin

8.1.1. Polish pianist/composer

8.1.2. Cultivated salon music

8.1.3. Majority of his music was for solo piano

8.1.4. Mazurka

8.1.4.1. based on a traditional Polish dance form, triple meter, accent on 2 or 3

8.1.5. Ballades

8.1.5.1. expressed Polish nationalism

8.2. Gottschalk

8.2.1. first American composer to make his mark in European art music

8.2.2. commercially successful music based on exotic themes and places

8.2.3. Bamboula

8.2.3.1. evokes social dancing heard in NOLA's Congo square

8.3. Glinka

8.3.1. one of the first significant Russian composers

8.3.2. A Life for the Tsar

8.3.2.1. begins a long tradition of Russian nationalism

8.3.3. Studied in Italy

8.3.3.1. learned bel canto style

8.3.4. Studied in Berlin

8.3.4.1. counterpoint

9. Wagner

9.1. The Ring Cycle

9.1.1. Took over 25 years to write, 15 hours to perform

9.1.2. Wagner uses leitmotifs

9.1.2.1. motifs can signify many things, including characters, places, objects, emotions, or even abstract ideas

9.1.3. The action continually evolves

9.2. Gesamkuntswerk

9.2.1. Total or united artwork

9.3. Unendliche melodie

9.3.1. Unending melody

9.4. Tristan und Isolde

9.4.1. Features the Tristan chord

9.4.2. Represents a turn away from tonality

9.5. New theater

9.5.1. Built in Bayreuth

9.5.2. The orchestra was placed under the stage in the "pit"

10. Verdi

10.1. Saw a distinction between the North "Songs of Bach" and the South "Sons of Palestrina"

10.2. Operas were performed during the Risorgimento

10.2.1. Risorgimento: the period when Italy struggled for national unity

10.2.2. "Viva VERDI"

10.2.3. Verdi sought realism in his operas

10.2.3.1. Trio of masterworks

10.2.3.1.1. Rigoletto

10.2.3.1.2. Il trovatore

10.2.3.1.3. La traviata

10.2.3.2. Verdi merged elements of all existing dramatic genres into one single idiom: tragicomedy

11. Smetana

11.1. Czech Composer

11.2. Ma vlast

11.2.1. cycle of six symphonic poems

11.2.2. represents musical Czechness

11.2.3. Vltava (Die Moldau): main theme represents the river

11.2.3.1. Became the most popular theme Smetana ever composed

12. The Mighty Five

12.1. Miliy Balakirev

12.1.1. Led the New Russian School

12.2. César Cui

12.3. Alexander Borodin

12.3.1. Composed symphonies

12.4. Modest Musorgsky

12.4.1. Boris Gudunov

12.4.1.1. Imitated conversational speech

12.4.1.2. Revised by Rimsky-Korsakov

12.5. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

12.6. Promoted Russian music and disliked conservatory teaching and external influence

12.7. Opposed by Anton Rubinstein

12.7.1. Sought to raise Russian music training by importing teachers from Western Europe

13. Tchaikovsky

13.1. Pupil of Rubinstein

13.2. Saw his style of composition existing somewhere between that of Western Europe and Russia

13.3. Supported for 13 years by patroness Nadezhda von Meck

13.4. Eugene Onegin

13.5. Fourth Symphony

13.5.1. Autobiographical

13.5.1.1. Associated with his marriage

14. Revival of the Symphony

14.1. Brahms

14.1.1. First symphony nickname Beethoven's Tenth symphony

14.1.2. Known for his technique Developing Variation

14.2. Bruckner

14.2.1. Symphonies sound similar to organ improvisation

14.3. Dvorak

14.3.1. New World Symphony

14.4. The Boston School

14.4.1. Edward MacDowell

14.4.2. Amy Beach

15. Opera 1850-1900

15.1. Orientalism

15.1.1. musical representation of non-European (generally Asian) people

15.1.2. Bizet's Carmen

15.1.2.1. The arias performed by the exotic, main character often accompanied by Latin dance styles

15.2. Operetta

15.2.1. Started with Offenbach

15.2.1.1. Pioneered lighter style of opera that made fun of serious opera

15.2.2. Moved to Vienna, where Johan Strauss II composed operettas

15.2.3. Moved to England where Gilbert and Sullivan composed operrettas

15.2.3.1. Opened their own theater to stage operettas

15.2.3.2. Specialized in patter song

15.3. Verismo

15.3.1. Style of opera that is more relatable to the audience

15.3.2. Often features on-stage violence

15.3.3. Puccini

15.3.3.1. La boheme

15.3.3.2. Tosca

15.3.3.3. Madama Butterfly

16. Music & Literature

16.1. H. Berlioz

16.1.1. Symphonie fantastiqe

16.1.1.1. Five-movement, programatic symphony

16.1.1.2. Uses idée fixe

16.1.1.2.1. Recurring melody that appears in all five movements

16.1.1.3. Parodies the Dies Irae

16.2. Felix Mendelssohn

16.2.1. A Midsummer Night's Dream

16.3. Robert Schumann

16.3.1. Carnaval

16.3.1.1. Collection of short piano pieces

16.3.1.2. Includes a large cast of characters including Eusebius and Florestan (Schumann's critical personas)

16.3.2. 1840: Year of Song

16.4. Fanny Mendelssohn

16.4.1. Coined the title "Song without Words"

16.4.2. Works published under brothers name

16.4.3. Not allowed to compose due to social standing

16.5. Clara Schumann

16.5.1. Published songs with her husband

16.5.2. Many of her compositions were for her own performance on the piano