American Society

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American Society создатель Mind Map: American Society

1. 1860-90

1.1. Women & Female Suffrage

1.1.1. Senaca Falls Convention 1848: launched Feminist campaign

1.1.2. Conservative vs. Radical Feminists Divided over 14th/15th Amendments - supported black males' voting rights at the expense of women Leaders of Radicals were Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton 19th Amendment - universal female suffrage, also named the Susan B. Anthony Amendment Split lasted 20 years Until the National American Women's Suffrage Association was formed in 1890

1.2. Position of African Americans

1.2.1. Social Southern segregationalists attempted to regain control of the South so discrimination persisted Black codes passed - restricted freedom, basically the old slave codes Lynching KKK membership reached its peak in 1866 with 4 million members Browns (freed before 1865) vs. Blacks (freed 1865) Race Riots in 1866 - Memphis, New Orleans

1.2.2. Political Compromise of 1877 - no laws to protect them, removal of troops from the South took all force from the 1870/71 Enforcement Acts Restricted legal rights - e.g. couldn't vote until 1870 No equal rights 1866 Civil Rights Act supported equal rights and federal intervention to enforce them but was vetoed by Johnson Johnson issued 13, 000 pardons to ex-Confederation leaders Amnesty Act 1872 - allowed ex-Confed leaders back into politics Freedmen's Bureau vetoed twice by Johnson during Congressional Reconstruction

1.2.3. Economic Difficult to find worthwhile employment Most were sharecroppers - landowner gained a share of the profit, not much better off Little/nothing done to provide freedmen with their own land

1.2.4. Advances for African Americans Moved away from previous home districts New surnames, insisted Mr or Miss Right to marry Could set up churches and new businesses for African Americans Commitment to black education 1000 schools and 3 universities set up for African Americans by wealthy Northern philanthropists Booker T. Washington Influential and prestigious spokesman for African Americans Visited the White House Set up the Tuskagee Institute Wanted education and economic independence for African Americans Laws passed to protect/benefit African Americans 1875 Civil Rights Act - Equal transport and jury duty 14th Amendment (1868) - Citizenship rights 15th Amendment (1870) - Freedmen granted the right to vote

1.3. Social Unrest

1.3.1. Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Workers fighting wage cuts in Virginia Troops of national guard involved Pennsylvania Union Rail Depot set on fire - 40 killed Hayes sent federal troops to restore order 2 weeks later

1.3.2. Orange Riots, NY, 1870-71 Irish Protestants (Orangemen) vs. Irish Catholics Irish gangs terrorised Jews, Italians, and Poles

1.3.3. Resentment and class conflict continued between groups of white society

1.3.4. Freedmen vs. Former Slave Owners

1.4. Reaction to the Rise of Industrial Capitalism

1.4.1. Knights of Labour set up by workers

1.4.2. Middle class pressure groups against big business

1.4.3. The Granger Movement, 1867 - set up to help farmers with loans, advice and solidarity Hostile to railroad companies Farmers were pushed aside by big businesses Struggled for economic survival, fear of debt

1.4.4. Alliance Movement - political approach, put up candidates in elections

1.5. Regional Divisions

1.5.1. South New South was the same as the Old South Alienation and displacement persisted Determined to rebuild segregation Couldn't recover from defeat Lost their way of life and their position at the forefront of politics Violence and discrimination towards African Americans Complained about Yankees (Northerners), Carpetbaggers (stealing from the South), and Scalawags (betrayed the South)

1.5.2. The Wild West Actions of white Americans overtook government policy Farmers, small businessmen etc. Formed treaties with the Indian Nations But gold prospectors poured into the Black Hills of the Dakotas from 1879 Life changed rapidly Boom and bust mining towns Railroads replaced cattle drives Buffalo slaughted and the army drove out the Indians on the land

1.6. Mass Immigration

1.6.1. 10 million from 1860-90

1.6.2. Germans, Swedes, Irish, Scots

1.6.3. Statue of Liberty, 1886 - symbolised 'Land of the Free'

1.6.4. 'Melting Pot'

1.6.5. Attitudes towards Chinese immigrants Transcontinental railroad Yellow Peril - race conscious fear of Chinese and Japanese Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 - stopped immigration of Chinese workers and made it hard for them to gain American citizenship, fears they would undermine white workers Meant to last 10 years, repealed in 1945 50% of California's workforce - cheap labour, hard working, disciplined work ethic 'Alien' and 'coloured' 1879: Hayes 'Prevent Chinese Invasion'

1.6.6. People generally lived longer and in urban areas Milwaukee became German-American city Improved transport and urbanisation

1.6.7. Impacts of immigration Regarded with suspicion and hostility - threat to jobs and existing norms Nativism spread rapidly New vs. old immigrants Inner conflict - wanting to be a good American vs. wanting to stick to old traditions