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ToBIT создатель Mind Map: ToBIT

1. What are the specifics of the construction sector regarding business models?

1.1. ("Construction Sector" OR "Building Sector" OR "construction industry") AND "Business Model"

1.1.1. Business Model Innovation in China's Real Estate Industry: the Case of Shenzhen Vanke

1.1.1.1. Business Model Innovation in China's Real Estate Industry: the Case of Shenzhen Vanke - IEEE Conference Publication

1.1.1.1.1. According to the survey done by IBM business consulting services in 2006, global CEOs stated that business model innovation will have a greater impact on operating margin growth, than product or service innovation. We also noticed that some enterprises in China's real estate industry have improved their business models for sustainable competitive advantage and surplus profit in recently years. Based on the case studies of Shenzhen Vanke, as well as literature review, a framework for business model innovation has been developed. The framework provides an integrated means of making sense of new business model. These include critical dimensions of new customer value propositions, technological innovation, collaboration of the business infrastructure and the economic feasibility of a new business model.

1.1.2. Market opportunities and barriers for smart buildings

1.1.2.1. Market opportunities and barriers for smart buildings - IEEE Conference Publication

1.1.2.1.1. Buildings consume up to 42% of the global electricity and the primary emitter of greenhouse gas on the planet. Building efficiency is the largest growing segment in the US, the estimated global revenue by the building efficiency sector is around 210 million dollars, and constantly increases since 2011. Much research already shows the players' passive and conservative attitudes to enter into the energy efficiency market. Especially there are obstacles for the construction companies to redesign their business model from the traditional building business to the smart building market. This paper conducts a qualitative approach with primary and secondary data to investigate the Barriers and opportunities of the construction companies into the smart building market. The result shows the willingness of the players to involve the building efficiency business with huge potential monetary benefits. Meanwhile, the result shows that the barriers can be eased or solved by open collaboration, information and risk sharing, and self-investment, etc. this paper also categorizes nine influential factors with discussions.

1.2. Business model (build OR construction) sector specifics

1.2.1. Green business models in the construction sector: An analysis of outcomes and benefits

1.2.1.1. Green business models in the construction sector: An analysis of outcomes and benefits | Request PDF

1.2.1.1.1. Purpose – Green business models (GBMs) in the construction sector represent the logic of green value creation and capture. Hence, the call to examine GBMs is growing ever louder. The aim of this paper is to identify benefits of GBMs by adopting five essential elements of the GBM from the literature: green value proposition; target group; key activities; key resources (KR); and financial logic. Design/methodology/approach – In all, 19 semi-structured interviews are conducted with construction sector practitioners and academics in the UK. Thematic analysis is used to obtain benefits of GBMs. Further, the interpretive ranking process (IRP) is used to examine which elements of the GBM have a dominant role in providing benefits to construction businesses. Findings – The benefits are grouped into three themes: credibility/reputation benefits; financial benefits; and long-term viability benefits. The IRP model shows that the element of KR is the most important when evaluated against these three benefit themes. Practical implications – Linking GBM elements and benefits will help companies in the construction sector to analyse the business case of embracing environmental sustainability. Originality/value – This research is one of the few empirical academic works investigating the benefits of GBMs in the construction sector. The IRP method is a novel contribution to GBMs and construction research.

1.2.2. Green business models transformation: evidence from the UK construction sector

1.2.2.1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309728402_Green_business_models_transformation_evidence_from_the_UK_construction_sector

1.2.2.1.1. Purpose Sustainability has the potential to bring enormous benefits to our built environment. To release this potential, a change in business models is required. The purpose of this paper is to investigate green business models (GBMs) transformation by adopting five essential elements of green value creation and capture: green value proposition (GVP), target group (TG), key activities (KA), key resources (KR), and financial logic (FL). Design/methodology/approach In this qualitative study, 19 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviewees were selected purposively. The emergent data were analysed with the aid of themes. Findings It was observed that significant effort was being made towards enabling the transformation of certain elements pertinent to green value creation: KA and KR. This was particularly so when compared to other elements like GVP, TG, and FL. Practical implications Findings from this study should encourage construction managers to align their extant BMs to green activities hence enabling new approaches to green value creation and capture. Furthermore, the study will aid in improving the environmental and economic positions of the value chain within the construction sector. Originality/value This research is one of the few empirical academic works investigating GBMs in the construction sector.

1.3. Construction Sector "Business Model"

1.3.1. Business models in construction companies - construction managers' viewpoint

1.3.1.1. (PDF) Business models in construction companies - construction managers' viewpoint

1.3.1.1.1. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how construction managers understand the business model concept and to investigate what kind of business models are used in construction companies. Design/methodology/approach – The literature on business models was reviewed. The empirical research is based on eight semi-structured interviews and is explorative in nature. Findings – Construction managers seem to understand business models very differently than those in other sectors or within the academia. The main difference is that they relate these models to a company’s field of activities or different project delivery and contract structures rather than to a rigorous analysis of how the pieces of a company’s socio-technical system fit together and create value for the selected markets. Indeed, it is argued that the business model concept is not used in construction companies to the extent to which it is described in literature. Due to varying conceptions of the concept, current business models could not be identified; instead, the operating logic of each company was described. Research limitations – Due to the local nature of construction markets there may be some unidentified factors that prevent further generalisations of findings, as some of the companies studied operate in a rather small geographical area. Implications – It is suggested that business models in the construction industry ought to be studied and developed at the level of activity fields or business segments. Originality/value – The research makes an original contribution by exploring the current state in the use of business models within construction companies.

2. What kind of business models might become suitable for the construction sector?

2.1. ("Construction Sector" OR "Building Sector" OR "construction industry") AND "Business Model"

2.1.1. Finding New Ways of Creating Value: A Case Study of Servitization in Construction

2.1.1.1. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08956308.2016.1161405

2.1.1.1.1. Using activity theory as a framework, this paper explores how organizational changes enabled a multinational construction company to transform its business model in pursuit of servitization. Following one firm’s journey toward servitization over a 33-month period, the study demonstrates how the mobilization of new resources across the supply chain, the development of new products, and the creation of new service offerings enabled the organization to create and capture value in new ways. Given the lack of research on systems integrators and servitization, the case offers some important insights. It suggests that systems integrators must carefully consider their position within their existing value chain as they shift toward servitized business models and then constantly coordinate internal and external activities as they move forward. For instance, Laing O’Rourke developed new offerings by exploiting data from across the supply chain and integrating design and manufacturing processes to create possibilities to capture value through long-term customer relationships. The use of activity theory as a frame for the analysis offers a new way of examining how these firms move toward servitization and what barriers they face.

2.2. ("Construction Sector" OR "Building Sector" OR "construction industry") AND (BIM OR Robot OR Future)

2.2.1. Application of Lean Construction to Chinese Construction Industry Based on BIM Technology

2.2.1.1. Application of Lean Construction to Chinese Construction Industry Based on BIM Technology - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.1.1.1. Lean construction changes the traditional construction implementation plan, and has become a new profit driven in foreign countries, but it is still not so familiar to Chinese participants. And the information foundation of construction is unfit for the application of lean construction. So this paper introduces a feasible scheme based on BIM to improve the profit and construction function of Chinese construction corporation.

2.2.2. KPIs: Analyzing the impact of Building Information Modeling on construction industry in China

2.2.2.1. KPIs: Analyzing the impact of Building Information Modeling on construction industry in China - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.2.1.1. This paper examines BIM research and application on construction industry in China and provides a view of KPIs. This study establishes a 5-KPIs (quality, cost, time, safety, and energy) model of the BIM impact on construction industry. Then through investigation of 93 valid questionnaires, two kinds of statistical data analysis approaches are conducted and the different results are compared and interpreted. Finally, some conclusions and improvement advices are given for future improvement of BIM.

2.2.3. Exploring developers' understanding on Building Information Modelling (BIM) and its impact on Return on Investment (ROI)

2.2.3.1. Exploring developers' understanding on Building Information Modelling (BIM) and its impact on Return on Investment (ROI) - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.3.1.1. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is the current trend in the construction industry globally, and Malaysia, is not an exception too. BIM has been in Malaysia for the past ten (10) years, and in the future, BIM will be an industry standard, instead of an optional service. Even though BIM is already in the industry for ten (10) years, many developers are still reluctant to implement it because they could not see the benefits of BIM especially in monetary terms. This paper aims to explore the understanding developers of BIM and its impact on Return on Investment (ROI). A literature review is carried out to review the linkage between BIM and ROI. The study engages qualitatively with four (4) respondents who held the title of BIM managers in their respective companies that have experience in BIM. Data was collected through face-to-face semi-structured interview sessions and was analysed using qualitative content analysis techniques. From the findings, the respondents do understand BIM and that BIM is not a tool for visualisation only. It is, in fact, able to help them in project control. The findings show that BIM had impacted on the ROI of both the project and organisation. At present, these findings support the argument that BIM does have an impact on the ROI both positively and negatively. However, the findings prove that BIM is worthy of its pricey initial investment. It is, therefore, suggested that Malaysian developers invest in BIM though the initial investment may seem pricey.

2.2.3.2. Construction automation with autonomous mobile robots: A review - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.3.2.1. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art research into automated construction by autonomous mobile robots. Today, space research agencies seek to build infrastructure without human intervention; and construction companies look to robots as having the potential to achieve improvements in construction quality, efficiency, and safety, not to mention flexibility in architectural design. This paper addresses and classifies the relevant studies in terms of applications, materials, and robotic systems. We also identify ongoing challenges and discuss about future robotic requirements for the automated construction.

2.2.4. Application of smart energy technologies in building sector — future prospects

2.2.4.1. Application of smart energy technologies in building sector — future prospects - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.4.1.1. In buildings, various kinds of energies like cooling, heating, hot Water, lighting, electricity and gas are used on daily basis to provide safety and comfort to occupants. The national and global trend is to transform a conventional building to smart building by making use of smart technologies. The main objective of smart energy technology is to reduce the energy cost and environmental impact in building life cycle. All engineers, planners and designers are looking for applications of smart technologies in buildings to achieve the goal of lowest possible energy cost with zero environmental impact on building life cycle. Also the conventional cities are being transformed into smart cites which are financially and ecologically viable through the use of smart energy technologies and systems. Use of Renewable Energy is one of the pillars for attaining smart building and smart cities infrastructure. Technologies like smart metering, smart Lighting, smart grid and Energy Internet, Renewable, Distributed, Net metering, LED, Smart Building Energy Management Systems (SBEMS), Insulations, Day Lighting, Smart HVAC systems are the major technologies being used to achieve a smart Building architecture. Many countries have set up targets to reduce the carbon footprints by 10 to 30% by deploying smart and renewable energy technologies coupled with energy efficiency improvements and conservation actions. Future prospects for smart technologies are very bright and it is future technology revolution toward achieving sustainable energy goals. By deploying the smart energy technologies, conventional buildings can be transformed to Smart energy buildings leading to sustainable and green energy future.

2.2.5. Construction automation with autonomous mobile robots: A review

2.2.6. Cyber-physical systems for construction industry

2.2.6.1. Cyber-physical systems for construction industry - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.6.1.1. The Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry sector is currently experiencing a transformation in its traditional business processes, through adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM). In a nutshell, BIM could be understood as a set of new processes to design, plan, and construct buildings, based on 3D virtual objects that represent different building components, and its mutual relationships. Nowadays, most applications of BIM processes are focused on the concept, design, and planning phases of the building lifecycle. Part of the reason behind that fact is that construction processes are still largely dependent of human labor, and dynamic connection between BIM models and real progression on-site during construction phase are almost non-existent. In exploiting the digitization promoted by the introduction of BIM, it should be important to consider the relevance of Industry 4.0 technologies to Construction. This papers presents a framework in which Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) for Construction are based on virtual models of construction processes, implemented via Petri Nets, and connected to both BIM models, and to hardware (sensors and actuators) working in on-site production / assembly. Then, the proposed framework is “relaxed” and extended to be applied in a scenario where CPS are just a bi-directional link between virtual models and its real counterparts on-site, without hardware to be controlled, but with observations based on data acquired via sensing. Such proposition aims to concentrate efforts and promote the importance of process models in construction, and to provide simulation and optimization to the current processes based on data from real-time progression monitoring during construction and information from BIM models.

2.2.7. A 3-D Structural Components Automatic Modeling Method Based on BIM

2.2.7.1. A 3-D Structural Components Automatic Modeling Method Based on BIM - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.7.1.1. With the application of 3D building information model(BIM) technology and computer technology, facing the construction engineering structure design part, according to the related engineering design specifications, it designs automatic modeling method for three-dimensional structure. The method mainly aims at reinforced concrete frame structure. Based on the completion of BIM model by building professional, firstly vertical concrete column components are extracted from building model, and digitalized. And then through the establishment of relationship between topological constraint and size constraint, the space position and section size of connection column frame beam, second beam and the plate are determined in turn. Finally, by adopting Visual Studio development platform, using C++ and C# programming language and calling application program interface provided by Revit, the 3D building information model of frame beam, second beam and the plate are generated automatically in turn. This method is validated by engineering examples whose results show that the effect of regular structure of the building turns out to be good.

2.2.8. A service robot for construction industry

2.2.8.1. A service robot for construction industry - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.8.1.1. Traditionally, building construction has been performed mainly by hand with a little help from electromechanical-manual devices. However, this industry possesses a great potential for automation and robotic systems are being introduced step by step because of many technical hitches. Apart from these technical shortcomings, builders are being pushed in many countries to provide automatic tools to improve both productivity and operator's safety. This paper presents some technical aspects of a tool developed to help out operators in handling and installing pre-manufactured plaster panels for indoor-wall construction. It consists in a lightweight six-DOF manipulator, which is fixed between floor and ceiling so that it can carry heavy payloads without tipping over. The robot is easily assembled and disassembled to make possible transportation by operators. This paper presents the basic guidelines to configure a system for the mentioned activity. It includes the system's main features and functions and some design aspects that makes this manipulator an example of how to configure a lightweight manipulators to handle heavy payloads

2.2.9. Simulation of automated construction using wire robots

2.2.9.1. Simulation of automated construction using wire robots - IEEE Conference Publication

2.2.9.1.1. Despite a high potential to improve the productivity, quality and safety and also to reduce costs, automated technologies are not widely spread in the construction sector. This paper presents a simulation-based approach to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of wire robots for automated construction in future investigations. Masonry buildings are considered as an appropriate application case due to repetitive construction procedures and high demands concerning accuracy of construction. A simulation model representing the fundamental mechanics of a wire robot is created. Special focus lies on creating collision-free motion profiles which can be exported to the robot control system. BIM models can be used to set-up the simulation model and to prepare the required input data. Following a modular structure, the model can be applied with different purposes in the exploration of the approach. The construction of a one-story masonry building serves as case study proving the concept's functionality.

3. What kind of business models for the construction sector do already exist?

3.1. ("Construction Sector" OR "Building Sector" OR "construction industry") AND (today OR case "study") AND "Business Model"

3.1.1. Path and risk analysis of innovation-driven development of construction enterprises

3.1.1.1. Path and risk analysis of innovation-driven development of construction enterprises - IEEE Conference Publication

3.1.1.1.1. Construction enterprises are faced with major changes of the construction industry and market, and innovation has become an important development measure for the construction enterprises to cope with the market crisis, expand the living space, and create a new profit point. This paper analyzes the necessity of innovation-driven development of construction enterprises, and puts forward the general direction and five mainly path of innovation. Finally, this paper analyzes the obstacles in the innovation process, and evaluates risk of innovation-driven development of construction enterprise based on AHP-Entropy weight-Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

3.1.2. Business model innovation for delivering zero carbon buildings

3.1.2.1. Business model innovation for delivering zero carbon buildings

3.1.2.1.1. Zero carbon building (ZCB) has emerged as an innovative approach to improving building energy performance and reducing building carbon emissions. Previous studies have devoted to analyzing the technical feasibility and design issues of ZCB, and examining barriers to adopt ZCB in market, social, regulatory and financial aspects. However, few have explored the role of business models in the delivery of ZCBs, which may explain the slow uptake of the ZCB approach. The aim of this paper is thus to examine the effect of business model on ZCB, and explore how business model innovation can help to deliver ZCBs. The paper first reviews the concept of ZCB and identifies the challenges to ZCB based on the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal analytical framework. The paper then investigates the conceptual framework of business models for ZCB. Eight key elements of business model are identified, which include product/service, value proposition, target customer, organization and activities, role in value network, resource and core competency, competitive advantage, cost and revenue model. Theoretical bases of business model innovation are examined in order to establish a process-based framework of business model innovation. Evidence was collected to substantiate the arguments through case study with one recent ZCB project. The results reveal innovations in three interrelated components of business model, namely, value offering, value creation and delivery, and value capture, and demonstrate how value from ZCB can be created and captured through these components. The findings help to demonstrate how business model innovation helps to deliver ZCBs.

3.1.3. Sustainable Business Models for Deep Energy Retrofitting of Buildings: State-of-the-art and Methodological Approach

3.1.3.1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187661021630813X

3.1.3.1.1. The achievement of the sustainability goals within the building sector involves the adoption of sustainable business models (SBMs) and energy efficiency measures. On one side, traditional business models (BM s), aiming to express the business logic of firms, need to incorporate the triple bottom line, by embracing the economic, environmental and social dimensions. On the other side, the implementation of energy efficiency measures might occur through deep energy retrofits on buildings, considering their significant contribution to the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. The measures of energy refurbishment are not only useful in reducing environmental impacts and saving building owners’ money, but might also represent a powerful source of business for other stakeholders, e.g., retrofitting service providers.This paper first illustrates the state-of-the-art of BMs for energy efficient retrofitting actions within the building field. Therefore, common BMs in this scope are described and compared in their main components, with an analysis of potentials and limitations. This leads to the identification of research gaps, with the formulation of a set of questions that need further examination. Afterwards, the paper presents a methodological approach regarding a possible way to incorporate quantitative sustainability analyses into BM s related to projects of energy efficient refurbishment in buildings. The aim is to provide the basis for empirical testing on case studies, with further development of the proposed methodology. Lastly, there is a critical discussion on how the presented methodological approach could fill the research gaps, with the indication of possible future research directions.

3.1.4. Emerging business models for energy efficiency in buildings

3.1.4.1. (PDF) Emerging business models for energy efficiency in buildings

3.1.4.1.1. The European energy efficiency and the EPBD directives emphasize the role of buildings within the climate and energy strategy. Given the high energy consumption of the building sector the European approach provides a mix of mandatory targets, minimum requirements, labeling, and supporting tools to help member states in delivering the requested energy efficiency improvements. A strong action on the building stock represents also an unique opportunity in terms of market development, employment, and contrast of fuel poverty, with many related benefits. Despite the commitment from the European Commission and the available benefits, the renovation of the public real estate clashes with the financial condition of many public bodies, the lack of economic and human resources, and the inadequate development of the energy efficiency market. The authors carried on in 2013–2014 a comprehensive study in Italy on the skills, business models and policies available in order to overcome the existing barriers and support the public sector in the energy renovation of its building stock. Specifically, the study shows that many new approaches are emerging to facilitate and permit the required market transformation. Based on the results of the study mentioned above, the paper will illustrate the most interesting case studies about the analyzed business models and illustrate how different approaches can be adapted to different situations, involving both public and private parties. Some case studies took advantage from the involvement of different financing sources, others profited from synergies between local parties and local policies, others – like electricity and gas supply – were able to change their business model, others showed how companies that understand the concept of green economy can play a role in improving their territory. The results can be of interests both for policy makers and market actors.

3.1.5. Innovation, low energy buildings and intermediaries in Europe: systematic case study review

3.1.5.1. (PDF) Innovation, low energy buildings and intermediaries in Europe: systematic case study review

3.1.5.1.1. As buildings throughout their life cycle account for circa 40% of total energy use in Europe, reducing energy use of the building stock is a key task. This task is, however, complicated by a range of factors, including slow renewal and renovation rates of buildings, multiple non-coordinated actors, conservative building practices and limited competence to innovate. Drawing from academic literature published during 2005–2015, this article carries out a systematic review of case studies on low energy innovations in the European residential building sector, analysing their drivers. Specific attention is paid to intermediary actors in facilitating innovation processes and creating new opportunities. The study finds that qualitative case study literature on low energy building innovation has been limited, particularly regarding the existing building stock. Environmental concerns, EU and national and local policies have been the key drivers; financial, knowledge and social sustainability and equity drivers have been of modest importance; while design, health and comfort and market drivers have played a minor role. Intermediary organisations and individuals have been important through five processes: (1) facilitating individual building projects, (2) creating niche markets, (3) implementing new practices in social housing stock, (4) supporting new business model creation and (5) facilitating building use post-construction. The intermediaries have included both public and private actors, while local authority agents have acted as intermediaries in several cases.