MUSI 3300: Renaissance Era

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MUSI 3300: Renaissance Era создатель Mind Map: MUSI 3300: Renaissance Era

1. Contenance Angloise & The Spread of English Influence (15th Century)

1.1. Political factors

1.1.1. Hundred Years' War (1337-1435)

1.1.2. Duke of Bedford brought English musicians to Paris (1420s/1430s)

1.2. Composers

1.2.1. English

1.2.1.1. John Dunstable (ca. 1390-1453)

1.2.1.1.1. Brought the "English guise" to continental Europe

1.2.1.1.2. Anthology #31: Quam pulchra es

1.2.2. Franco-Flemish

1.2.2.1. Guillaume Du Fay (ca. 1397- 1474)

1.2.2.1.1. Important figure in the development of the French procedure fauxbourdon. Musical output embodies the transition from medieval to renaissance style

1.2.2.1.2. Anthology #32: Conditor lame siderum

1.2.2.1.3. Anthology #33: Super rosarum flores

1.3. Terms

1.3.1. Countenance Angloise: "English guise"

1.3.1.1. "Major mode" tonality, triadic harmony, smooth handling of dissonance

1.3.2. Faburden

1.3.2.1. multiple unnotated lines that would parallel the notated melody: upper line was a fourth above and the lower line would vary between thirds and fifths below (English)

1.3.3. Fauxbourdon

1.3.3.1. unnotated line that runs parallel to the uppermost of two notated lines, usually at the interval of a fourth below (French)

1.3.4. Panconsonance

1.3.4.1. a harmonic idiom that makes ample use of triads and limits the use of dissonance considerably

1.4. Outcome

1.4.1. More common use of thirds, sixths, tenths

1.4.2. Composers/musicians begin to "trust the ear" / Go against medieval doctrine

1.4.3. Composers begin to establish a consistent formula for harmony / harmonic progressions

2. Stylistic Differences From Medieval Era

2.1. Texture

2.1.1. Pervading Imitation

2.1.1.1. Voices start to become equal; homogenous texture

2.2. Treatment of text

2.2.1. End of polyglot texts

2.3. Form

2.3.1. cantus firmus, isorhythm, formes fixes continue until ca. 1490

2.3.2. paratactic form becomes common (A, B, C, D, etc.

2.4. Harmony

2.4.1. Thirds and sixths become consonant

2.4.2. Limited and carefully controlled dissonance

3. Sacred Genres

3.1. Mass

3.1.1. Cyclic Mass

3.1.1.1. Cantus firmus mass

3.1.1.1.1. polyphonic mass in which the same cantus firmus is used in each movement of the Mass Ordinary

3.1.1.1.2. Anthology 36

3.1.1.1.3. Applications of the cantus firmus

3.1.1.2. Paraphrase mass

3.1.1.2.1. Polyphonic mass in which each movement of the Mass Ordinary is based on a monophonic melody that is embellished in all voices

3.1.1.2.2. Anthology 40

3.1.1.3. Imitation (parody) mass

3.1.1.3.1. Polyphonic mass in which each movement of the Mass Ordinary is based on the same polyphonic model (typically chanson or motet), and all voices of the model are used in the mass

3.1.1.3.2. Anthology 39

3.1.1.4. "Head-motiv"

3.1.1.4.1. Each movement of the Mass Ordinary begins with the same motive

3.1.1.5. Canon mass

3.1.1.5.1. Polyphonic mass in which each movement is structured in canon

3.1.1.5.2. Anthology 37 - Ockeghem

3.2. Motet

3.2.1. Functions

3.2.1.1. Liturgical (Part of the Mass or Office)

3.2.1.2. Devotional

3.2.1.3. Occasional (commissioned for special occasions)

4. Music Printing

4.1. Ottoviano Petrucci

4.1.1. Triple impression

4.1.2. Double impression

4.2. Pierre Attaigngnant

4.2.1. Single impression

4.3. Affects/Consequences

4.3.1. Music scores are more consistent

4.3.2. Music is more accessible to the public

4.3.3. Music literacy increases among the general public

4.3.4. A new way for composers to make money: selling scores

4.3.5. Increased in survival rates of musical scores

4.3.6. Publishers begin competing to secure new music from composers

4.3.7. Emergence of genres with international appeal

5. Secular Genres

5.1. Frotolla (Italy)

5.1.1. avoids imitation

5.1.2. chordal textures

5.1.3. dance like rhythms

5.1.4. simple harmonic progressions (I IV V I)

5.2. Tenorlied (Germany)

5.2.1. Diskantlied (soprano voice carries the melody)

5.3. 15th C. Chanson (Burgandy)

5.3.1. Adopted the structures of the formes fixes (developed a preference for the rondeau)

5.3.2. When compared to Parisian Chanson: more complex rhythms and polyphony

5.4. Parisian Chanson (16th Century)

5.4.1. Reflects the influence of the Italian frottola: generally homorhythmic, lighter and more chorally oriented

5.4.2. Claudin de Sermisy: Recognized master of the Parisian Chanson

5.5. Madrigal

5.5.1. No connection to medieval madrigal

5.5.2. through-composed

5.5.2.1. any form in which each section is based on thematic material different from that presented in other sections

5.5.3. frequent use of word painting

5.5.3.1. use of musical elements to imitate the meaning of a specific passage of the text being sung at the moment

5.5.4. The poetry of Petrarch was favored by madrigal composers

5.5.5. Madrigals were performed in many settings, from banquets to private homes (a favorite genre for amateur singers)

5.5.6. Three Ladies of Ferrara gained wide fame singing madrigals

5.5.7. Villanella

5.5.7.1. Subgeneres of the madrigal that were less literary and less musically elaborate

6. Music Theory

6.1. Philosophers

6.1.1. Johannes Tinctoris

6.1.1.1. rules for good counterpoint

6.2. Musica ficta

6.2.1. practice of sharpening or flattening certain notes even though they are not notated

6.2.1.1. Things to avoid

6.2.1.1.1. Vertical tritones/semitones

6.2.1.1.2. Horizontal tritones

6.2.1.2. Create leading tones when moving into cadences

7. Instrumental Music

7.1. Whole consorts

7.1.1. instruments all from the same family

7.2. Broken consorts

7.2.1. instruments from more than one family

7.3. "Haut" ensembles

7.3.1. ensembles made up of loud instruments and mostly used for playing outside

7.4. "Bas" ensembles

7.4.1. ensembles made up of quieter instruments, used indoors

7.5. Basse Dance

7.5.1. Slow, triple meter couples dances

7.5.2. The framework of the bass lines are preserved. Other instruments improvised on top of this framework.

8. Reformation

8.1. Lutheran Reformation

8.1.1. Led by Martin Luther

8.1.1.1. Luther never objected to polyphonic music or music with Latin texts

8.1.1.2. Luther placed special emphasis on congregational singing

8.1.2. Chorale

8.1.2.1. The congregational hymn of the German Protestant church service

8.1.2.2. Texts: Luther preferred short, monosyllabic words

8.1.2.3. Music was borrowed from existing melodies (sacred and secular) or newly composed

8.1.3. Johann Walter

8.1.3.1. Prominent composer who wrote specifically for the Protestant liturgy (first generation of Protestant composers)

8.2. Calvin Reformation

8.2.1. Led by Jean Calvin

8.2.1.1. Calvin believed any kind of polyphonic texture would distract the congregation from the meaning of the words

8.2.1.2. Banned instrumental music and limited sacred music to the unaccompanied union singing of the Psalms

8.2.2. Psalm verses

8.2.2.1. Unaccompanied, monophonic singing of the Psalms

8.2.3. Ulrich Zwingli

8.2.3.1. Another major figure in the Reformation movement in Switzerland

8.2.3.2. Dismantled organs in churches

8.3. English Reformation

8.3.1. Led by King Henry VII (wanted his marriage with Catherine of Aragon annulled)

8.3.2. Anthem

8.3.2.1. Similar to the motet, with English text

8.3.2.2. Full anthem

8.3.2.2.1. Composed for chorus throughout

8.3.2.3. Verse anthem

8.3.2.3.1. Consists of chorales passages alternating with solo voice w/instrumental accompaniment

8.3.3. Composers: William Byrd, Thomas Tallis, Christopher Tye

9. Counter-Reformation

9.1. The Roman Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation

9.2. Council of Trent

9.2.1. Met in three sessions to discuss the reforms of the church

9.2.2. Decisions concerning music

9.2.2.1. The council eliminated some plainchants from the liturgy

9.2.2.2. The council declared that the function of sacred music was to serve the text and the text should be clear to listeners

9.2.2.3. The council banished from services "all music the contains... things that are lascivious or impure"

9.2.2.4. The council decided to allow the continued use of polyphony

9.3. Palestrina

9.3.1. The polyphonic style developed by Palestrina aligned with the values discussed at the Council of Trent

9.3.2. Anthology 61: Missa Papae Marcelli

9.3.2.1. Contains straightforward text setting, mostly syllabic setting of text, and careful treatment of dissonance