MUSI 3300: Baroque Era

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1. Conclusions reached in the Camerata's Manifestos?

1.1. The ancient styles should be imitated

1.2. Only one melody should be sung at a time

1.3. The rhythm and melody should follow carefully the manner and speaking voice of "someone possessed of a certain affection"

1.4. Galilei added that the Greek dramas were sung continuously, and that this practice should be imitated by modern musicians

2. Marriage of Ferdinando de Medici to Christine de Lorraine

2.1. Centerpiece of the entertainment was a spoken comedy with six intermedia between the acts

2.2. Giovanni de Bardi was tasked with organizing entertainment for the event

2.3. Each of the intermedia featured a mixture of traditional polyphony and newer styles of composition

2.4. Contained music by Peri and Caccini

2.4.1. Anthology #69: Peri's "Dunque fra torbid'onde"

2.4.2. We see Peri and Caccini moving toward a texture that is homophonic

3. Florentine Camerata

3.1. Group of poets, musicians, and nobleman that gathered informally at the house of Giovanni de Bardi

3.2. Probable composers in this group?

3.2.1. Jacopo Peri

3.2.2. Guilio Caccini

3.3. The group was influenced by the writings of who?

3.3.1. Girolamo Mei

3.3.2. Vincenzo Galilei

4. Doctrine of Affections

4.1. During the Baroque period the composer was obliged, like the orator, to arouse in the listener emotional states

4.2. The Doctrine derived from ancient theories of rhetoric and oratory

4.3. Supported by the writings of Rene Descartes

5. Seconda Prattica/Prima Prattica

5.1. Seconda Prattica

5.1.1. the text dominated the music

5.1.2. the new style

5.1.3. led to the development of monody (single vocal line with chordal/basso continuo accompaniment), which in turn led to opera

5.2. Prima Prattica

5.2.1. the music dominated the text

5.2.2. the old style of traditional counterpoint

5.3. Monteverdi / Artusi Conflict

5.3.1. Artusi's Complaints

5.3.1.1. Artusi claimed Monteverdi's madrigals were unacceptable and wrote out his complaints in 1600 in a pamphlet

5.3.1.2. Artusi criticized Monteverdi for breaking the rules of counterpoint as set out by Zarlino

5.3.1.3. Artusi criticizes Monteverdi's Cruda Amarilli (Anthology No. 71)

5.3.2. Monteverdi's Response

5.3.2.1. Monteverdi replied with a brief manifesto of his own when his Fifth Book of Madrigals was published in 1605

5.3.2.2. Monteverdi coins the term "second practtica," and claims he is composing in a new style

5.3.3. The Artusi / Monteverdi controversy exposes fundamental difference in outlook between "old" and "new" / "prima" and "seconda"

5.4. Concerto Madrigal

5.4.1. Madrigal in which voices of any number combine with instruments, either basso continuo alone or basso continuo and other instruments

6. Basso Continuo / Figured Bass

6.1. Figured Bass

6.1.1. Numerals over a notated bass line that indicate the intervals to be played above that line

6.2. Basso Continuo

6.2.1. an instrumental bass line which runs throughout a piece, over which the player realizes a chordal accompaniment

6.2.2. Instrumentation?

6.2.2.1. flexible and rarely specified by composers

6.2.2.2. ideally it would combine a sustaining bass instrument (such as a viol or bassoon) with one or more chordal instruments (organ, harpsichord, lute, etc.)

7. Germany

7.1. Heinrich Schütz

7.1.1. Composed first German opera although most of his secular/stage works have been lost

7.1.2. Career transgressed the late Renaissance and Baroque. He learned both styles, the prima prattica and second prattica

7.1.3. Anthology No. 79

7.1.3.1. Polychoral concertato motet

7.1.3.2. Schütz incorporates traits of the seconda prattica

7.2. J.S. Bach

7.2.1. Cantatas

7.2.1.1. Wrote an estimated 280 sacred cantatas

7.2.1.2. Wrote 30 secular cantatas for royal birthdays, marriages, civic occasions, and university commencements

7.2.1.3. Composed for use in Lutheran worship service (as part of the liturgy)

7.2.1.3.1. A cantata was usually performed just before or after the sermon; a second might follow the Lord's Prayer

7.2.1.4. Bach drew on three different kinds of sources for his cantata texts. A typical cantata mixes all of these elements

7.2.1.4.1. 1. the biblical passages to be read in church that particular day

7.2.1.4.2. 2. a chorale text associated with that particular day

7.2.1.4.3. 3. a new poetic interpretation of sentiments consistent with that particular day

7.2.1.5. Anthology No. 88: Jesu, der du meine Seele, by J.S. Bach

7.2.1.5.1. Ostinato bass

7.2.1.5.2. Large-scale ritornello structure

7.2.1.5.3. Word painting

7.2.1.5.4. Contains recitative, choral sections, da capo arias, duets

8. France

8.1. Jean-Antoine de Baif the Academy of Poetry and Music

8.1.1. House Rules

8.1.1.1. No talking or disturbances of any kind during performances

8.1.1.2. Musicians were to rehearse every day and no music was to leave the performance area

8.1.2. Developed Musique Mesurée

8.1.2.1. Technique developed in an attempt to match French poetry with Greek and Latin poetry

8.1.2.2. Syllables are differentiated by length (duration) rather than weight (accent)

8.1.2.3. Used in French secular music: chansons or air de cour

8.1.2.4. Syllables were set to ratios of 2:1 resulting in irregular patterns of long/short rhythms

8.2. Air de cour

8.2.1. French secular song

8.2.2. At first polyphonic, but eventually evolved into the favored French vehicle for solo voice and lute accompaniment

8.2.3. Accompaniment did not utilize basso continuo, but rather notated tablature

8.2.4. Anthology No. 76

8.3. Ballet de cour

8.3.1. Court ballet

8.3.2. Dances, elaborate machines and costumes, and vocal pieces are combined in impressive and expensive displays

8.3.3. Vehicle for exalting royal power and authority. (Used by Louis XIII and Louis XIV)

8.4. Jean-Baptiste Lully

8.4.1. An Italian immigrant to France

8.4.2. Established sung drama in the form of the comedie-ballet

8.4.2.1. comédie-ballet: a French stage work that combined spoken, or later sung, comedies and ballet

8.4.3. Negotiated a monopoly on sung dramas in France

8.4.4. Along with lyricist Philippe Quinault, Lully created a new operatic genre, the tragédie en musique. Lully produced one a year between 1673 and 1687

8.4.5. Lully's model for the tragédie en musique lasted more than a hundred years

8.4.5.1. Plots: based on classic mythology and chivalric romances; were widely understood as commentary of recent events at court; the hero always represented Louis XIV

8.4.5.2. Consisted of four parts

8.4.5.2.1. French overture

8.4.5.2.2. Allegorical prologue closely related to some recent event at court

8.4.5.2.3. Five acts of entirely sung drama

8.4.5.2.4. Many divertissements (interludes)

8.4.5.3. Anthology No. 81

8.4.5.3.1. Armide

8.5. Jean-Phillipe Rameau

8.5.1. Inspired by Descare and Isaac Newton and approached music as a source of empirical data

8.5.2. Influential music theorist; published Treatise on Harmony, 1722

8.5.2.1. A chord keeps its identity through all its inversions; harmony of a passage is define by the root progression rather than the actual lowest sounding note

8.5.2.2. Coined the terms tonic, dominant, and subdominant

8.5.2.3. Formulated hierarchies of functional tonality

8.5.3. Composed on opera and multiple semi-operas

9. Italy

9.1. Early Operas

9.1.1. 1598: Dafne by Peri

9.1.2. 1600: Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo by Cavalieri

9.1.3. 1601: Euridice by Peri

9.1.4. 1601: Euridice by Caccini

9.1.5. 1607: Orfeo by Monteverdi (first opera to seamlessly work recitative into the drama)

9.1.5.1. Anthology No. 77

9.2. Court Opera

9.2.1. Plots commonly focused on Greek mythology

9.2.2. Large amount of funding for large orchestras and cast, exquisite costumes and scenery, and special effects

9.2.3. Operas were produced for special events: marriages, visiting dignitaries, birthdays, etc.

9.2.4. Monteverdi's Orfeo (court opera), Anthology No. 77

9.3. Public Opera

9.3.1. First public opera house opened in Venice in 1637

9.3.2. Open to any who could pay admission

9.3.3. Supported by state funding

9.3.4. How were these different than court operas

9.3.4.1. Limited use of elaborate machinery and staging (costs too much)

9.3.4.2. Increased attention on the singers (led to a rise in virtuosic singing)

9.3.4.3. Musical style began to reflect the tastes of the audience, greater emphasis on melody

9.3.4.4. Plots shifted from the mythological to the realistic/historical

9.3.4.5. Comic elements were incorporated

9.3.5. Carnival season drew large crowds to urban centers. Attendance at public operas boomed during Carnival.

9.3.6. Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea (public opera), Anthology No. 78

9.3.7. Impressario

9.3.7.1. Equivalent to modern-day Hollywood producers

9.3.7.2. Assembled all the necessary pieces to mount new productions of opera.

9.4. Opera Seria

9.4.1. Serious opera, sung almost exclusively in Italian

9.4.2. The majority of the arias are da capo arias

9.4.2.1. da capo means "from the head"

9.4.2.2. Form: ABA

9.4.2.3. The A section must always end in tonic, as it marks the end of the entire aria

9.4.2.4. Singers were expected to embellish the A section of an aria on its return

9.4.2.5. Candenzas are typically indicated in the score by a fermata sign. Cadenzas were to be more flamboyant the second time through the A section.

9.4.3. Suitcase Arias

9.4.3.1. An aria inserted into a different opera by a virtuosic singer

9.4.4. Recitative

9.4.4.1. Recitative Semplice

9.4.4.1.1. "simple recitative"

9.4.4.1.2. accompanied only by the basso continuo

9.4.4.1.3. used during extended passages of prose, including monologue or rapid exchanges among characters

9.4.4.2. Recitative accompagnato

9.4.4.2.1. "accompanied recitative"

9.4.4.2.2. accompanied by full orchestra rather than just basso continuo

9.4.4.2.3. reserved for moments of high emotion and drama

9.4.5. Castrati

9.4.5.1. Singers who were castrated before reaching puberty

9.4.5.2. Castrati combined the high range of a female voice with the physical power of the male voice

9.4.5.3. The greatest of the castrati enjoyed celebrity and financial rewards comparable to that of today's pop music stars

9.4.6. G.F. Handel

9.4.6.1. English composer of German birth

9.4.6.2. Established himself as a composer of opera seria while living in Italy

9.4.6.3. Brought opera seria to the public theaters of London / make a significant fortune producing these operas / later turned his attention to English language oratorios

9.4.6.4. Anthology No. 82: Giulio Cesare

10. England

10.1. Henry Purcell

10.1.1. Opera: Dido and Aneas

10.1.1.1. Affectation of Key

10.1.1.1.1. Major keys are used to evoke happiness / Minor keys are used to evoke sadness

10.1.1.2. French influences

10.1.1.2.1. Overture reflects similarities the French Overture (dotted rhythms, 2 section pattern)

10.1.1.2.2. Dance scenes

10.1.1.3. Famous aria: "When I am laid in Earth" (Dido's Lament)

10.1.1.3.1. Based on a repeating passacaglia

10.2. The Beggar's Opera

10.2.1. Playwright: John Gay

10.2.2. English-language semi opera

10.2.3. Criticizes operas for being "unnatural"

10.2.4. Full of critical political references

10.3. G.F. Handel

10.3.1. English composer of German birth

10.3.2. Established himself as a composer of opera seria while living in Italy

10.3.3. Brought opera seria to the public theaters of London / make a significant fortune producing these operas / later turned his attention to English language oratorios

10.3.4. Anthology No. 82: Giulio Cesare

11. Sacred Vocal Music

11.1. The Catholic Church's relationship with opera

11.1.1. The Church recognized the power of opera to convey moral and spiritual ideas

11.1.2. But the church also condemned opera for its power to dazzle and seduce

11.1.3. The Vatican banned the performance of opera in Catholic-ruled lands during Advent and Lent, but tolerated it at other times

11.2. Oratorio

11.2.1. Filled the void left during Advent and Lent

11.2.2. The term comes from its original place of performance: the prayer hall

11.2.3. Sung drama, usually presenting a dramatic scene from the Bible or from the lives of saints

11.2.4. No staging or costumes

11.2.5. A narrator often relays the plot through recitative

11.2.6. Include recitative, da capo, arias, and choral numbers

11.2.7. Anthology No. 86: Jephte by Giacomo Carissimi

11.2.7.1. One of the most popular of all early oratorios

11.2.7.2. Musically indistinguishable from operas composed around the same time

11.2.7.3. Places a premium on vocal virtuosity

11.2.8. German oratorios

11.2.8.1. German composers were especially keen to set the Gospel narratives of Christ's Passion to music

11.2.8.2. The chorus played an increasingly important role

11.2.8.3. Famous German oratorios: J.S. Bach's St. Mathew Passion and St. John Passion

11.2.8.4. Often incorporate Protestant chorale melodies

11.2.9. English oratorios

11.2.9.1. G.F. Handel cultivated the oratorio from the 1730s onward (after the opera seria went out of style in London)

11.2.9.2. Famous English oratorio: Handel's Messiah

11.3. Motet/Anthem

11.3.1. The polyphonic motet continued to thrive throughout Europe

11.3.2. The Grand Motet in France combined vocal soloists, chorus, and orchestra in a series of contrasting movement to a sacred text in Latin

11.3.3. Anthology No. 86: Zadok the Priest by G.F. Handel

11.3.3.1. Composed for the coronation of King George III in 1727

11.3.3.2. Long orchestral introduction allowed the royal procession sufficient time to makes its way down the long center isle of Westminster Abbey

11.3.3.3. Has been used in every British coronation since

11.4. Cantata

11.4.1. The term was applied to many different kinds of vocal works, both sacred AND secular

11.4.2. Could be a single movement or multiple movements

11.4.3. Could be a solo singer with basso continuo or small/large scale works with soloists, chorus, and instruments

11.4.4. Term derives from the Italian for "to sing"

11.4.5. Many 17th century cantatas are works in the tradition of the solo madrigal

11.4.6. Anthology No. 87: Judith by Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre

11.4.6.1. Small-scale, French sacred cantata

11.4.6.2. Depicts the story of Judith from the Apochryphal (ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles)

11.4.6.3. Performed primarily by one singer with basso continuo

11.4.7. J.S. Bach's Cantatas

11.4.7.1. Wrote an estimated 280 sacred cantatas

11.4.7.2. Wrote 30 secular cantatas for royal birthdays, marriages, civic occasions, and university commencements

11.4.7.3. Composed for use in Lutheran worship service (as part of the liturgy)

11.4.7.3.1. A cantata was usually performed just before or after the sermon; a second might follow the Lord's Prayer

11.4.7.4. Bach drew on three different kinds of sources for his cantata texts. A typical cantata mixes all of these elements

11.4.7.4.1. 1. the biblical passages to be read in church that particular day

11.4.7.4.2. 2. a chorale text associated with that particular day

11.4.7.4.3. 3. a new poetic interpretation of sentiments consistent with that particular day

11.4.7.5. Anthology No. 88: Jesu, der du meine Seele, by J.S. Bach

11.4.7.5.1. Ostinato bass

11.4.7.5.2. Large-scale ritornello structure

11.4.7.5.3. Word painting

11.4.7.5.4. Contains recitative, choral sections, da capo arias, duets

11.5. Instrumental Music

11.5.1. Sonata

11.5.1.1. "that which is sounded" - an instrumental work (broad definition during the Baroque)

11.5.1.2. Anthology No. 89

11.5.1.2.1. Isabella Leonarda: Sonata duodecima

11.5.1.2.2. Solo violin and basso continuo

11.5.1.2.3. Formal structure is not regulated like a classical sonata

11.5.1.3. Trio Sonata

11.5.1.3.1. Three notated parts: two higher voices (commonly violins) above a basso continuo

11.5.1.3.2. The basso continuo was often performed by two or more performers

11.5.1.3.3. Sonata da camera (chamber sonata): collection of dances

11.5.2. Concerto

11.5.2.1. Concerto grosso

11.5.2.1.1. Features a small group of soloists (the concertino), with its own basso continuo, against a larger ensemble known as the ripieno or tutti

11.5.2.1.2. Anthology No. 90

11.5.2.2. Solo concerto

11.5.2.2.1. Single soloist (or a pair of soloists) against a ripieno

11.5.2.2.2. Anthology No. 91

11.5.2.3. Ripieno concerto

11.5.2.3.1. Sonata da chiesa (church sonata): suitable for performance in the liturgy

11.5.2.3.2. Features no soloists at all; the ensemble is featured

11.5.2.4. Brandenburg concertos

11.5.2.4.1. J.S. Bach's most famous concertos

11.5.2.4.2. No two of the works have the same scoring or form

11.5.3. Suite

11.5.3.1. Collection of dance or dance-inspired movements, usually in the same key, but often varying between major and minor modes

11.5.3.2. Basic structure: 1. Moderately fast, 2. Moderately fast, 3. Slow, 4. Fast, triple meter

11.5.3.3. Variation suite: presents a series of contrasting dance movements based on one thematic idea

11.5.3.4. Programmatic suite: collections of dances paired with dramatic storylines

11.5.3.4.1. Example: Johann Kuhnau: Musical Representations of Several Biblical Stories

11.5.3.5. The orchestral suite was a principal genre for Baroque orchestral music

11.5.4. Free Keyboard Genres

11.5.4.1. Nonimitative

11.5.4.1.1. Toccata

11.5.4.1.2. Canzona

11.5.4.1.3. Fantasia

11.5.4.1.4. Prelude

11.5.4.2. Imitative

11.5.4.2.1. Ricercar

11.5.4.2.2. Fugue

11.5.5. Variations

11.5.5.1. Ground bass/basso ostinato: repeated bass line

11.5.5.2. Most important variation genres

11.5.5.2.1. Passacaglia/Chaconne

11.5.5.2.2. Passamezzo

11.5.5.2.3. Folia

11.5.5.3. Anthology No. 99: "Goldberg" Variations, Bach