PMI PMBok (3rd Edition) Processes

Description of PMBok processes

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PMI PMBok (3rd Edition) Processes por Mind Map: PMI PMBok (3rd Edition) Processes

1. Initiating

1.1. Develop Project Charter

1.1.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors Culture and Structure Standards Infrastructure risk tolerance PMIS existing human resources DB for cost estimating DB for risk study information Contract Statement of Work Organizational Process Assets policies templates guidelines change control procedures risk control procedures processes procedures

1.1.2. Output Project Charter project justification current understanding of requirements description of the new product or service assigned PM and his authority milestone schedule assumptions and constraints participation of functional orgs

1.1.3. Tools Project Selection Methods benefit measurement methods mathematical models Project Management Methodology Collection of templates and procedures that the organization uses PM Information System change control / versioning project planning Expert Judgement

1.1.4. Objectives Are we working on the right problem? Do we want to work on this problem?

1.2. Develop preliminary project scope statemente

1.2.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors Project Charter Organizational Process Assets Statement of Work

1.2.2. Output Preliminary Project Scope Statement objectives requirements and characteristics project boundaries assumptions/constraints initial WBS order of magnitude cost estimate

1.2.3. Tools Project Management Methodology Project Management Information System Expert Judgement

1.2.4. Objectives What are the high-level requirements to successfully deal with the customer's need? How realistic are the customer's expectations with regard to time and cost?

2. Planning

2.1. Develop Project Management Plan

2.1.1. Input Preliminary Project Scope Statement Project Management Processes Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets

2.1.2. Output Project Management Plan definition contains 9 plans further 6 components (may have more than 6)

2.1.3. Tools Project Management Methods Project Management Information System Expert Judgement

2.1.4. Objectives How can we best and most effectively achieve project objectives? Are all aspects of the plan consistent and comprehensive?

2.2. Scope Planning

2.2.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Preliminary Scope Statement Project Management Plan Project Charter

2.2.2. Output Project Scope Management Plan describing how the team will prepare the detailed scope statement describe how the WBS will be created describe how the final deliverables will be verified and accepted describe how change requests to the scope statement will be processed

2.2.3. Tools Expert Judgement Templates, Forms and Standards

2.2.4. Objectives How can I best determine the requirements and specifications necessary to satisfy the objectives of this project? How do I best use the available resources to accomplish this?

2.3. Scope Definition

2.3.1. Input Organizational Process Assets Project Charter Preliminary Scope Statement Scope Management Plan Approved Change Requests

2.3.2. Output Project Scope Statement Requested Changes Scope Management Plan (Updates)

2.3.3. Tools Product Analysis Alternatives Identification Stakeholder Analysis

2.3.4. Objectives What exactly will the customer get? What characteristics must the product have if the customer is to be satisfied?

2.4. Create WBS

2.4.1. Input Organizational Process Assets Scope Management Plan Approved Change Requests Project Scope Management Plan

2.4.2. Output Project Scope Statements (Updates) Work Breakdown Structure caveat WBS Dictionary detailed description of components in the WBS Scope Baseline Definition Scope Management Plan (updates) Requested Changes

2.4.3. Tools Work Breakdown Structure Template Decomposition

2.4.4. Objectives What project level deliverables will be required? How exactly will the work be done?

2.5. Activity Definition

2.5.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Project Scope Statement Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary Project Management Plan

2.5.2. Output Activity List Definition Activity Attributes Milestone List Definition Requested Changes

2.5.3. Tools Decomposition Templates Rolling Wave Planning Definition Planning Component Definition

2.5.4. Objectives What work needs to be done to produce the specified deliverables?

2.6. Activity Sequencing

2.6.1. Input Project Scope Statement Activity List Milestone List Activity Attributes Approved Change Requests

2.6.2. Output Project Schedule Network Diagram Definition Activity List (updates) Activity Attributes (updates) Approved Change Requests

2.6.3. Tools Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Definition Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) Definition Schedule Network Templates Dependency Determination mandatory dependencies discretionary dependencies external dependencies Applying leads and lags lead lag

2.6.4. Objectives In what sequence must the activities be conducted?

2.7. Activity Resource Estimating

2.7.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Activity List Activity Attributes Resource Availability info on which resources are available Project Management Plan

2.7.2. Output Activity Resource Requirements description of types and quantities of resources for each activity in a work package contains Activity Attributes (Updates) added Resource Breakdown Structure Resource Calendar (Updates) documents Requested Changes

2.7.3. Tools Expert Judgement Alternatives Analysis Published Estimating Data e.g. production rates and unit costs Project Management Software Bottom-up Estimating decompose activity into more detail decompose activity into more detail aggregate estimates into a total

2.7.4. Objectives what resources (people, material, equipment) are needed and in what quantity?

2.8. Activity Duration Estimating

2.8.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors duration estimating database available? Organizational Process Assets historical information on durations avalaible? Activity List Activity Attributes Project Scope Statement constraints and assumptions are considered Activity Resource Requirements resources assigned and availability of those resources will affect the duration Resource Calendar availability of resources could influence the duration Project Management Plan contains

2.8.2. Output Activity Duration Estimates Activity Duration Estimates assessment of the likely number of work periods required to complete an activity include some indication of the range e.g. 2 weeks +/- 2 days Activity Attributes (Updates) now include

2.8.3. Tools Expert Judgement can be used whenever possible Analogous Estimating using the duration of a previous similar activity as a basis for estimating Parametric Estimating mathematical model based on the quantity of work Three-Point-Estimates three estimates estimate = (opt + 4*lik + pes) / 6 Reserve Analysis aka calculated as contingency reserve must be documented

2.8.4. Objectives how long will the individual activities take?

2.9. Schedule Development

2.9.1. Input Organizational Process Assets e.g. project calendar Project Scope Statement Imposed dates on activity starts or finishes Key events or major milestones Activity List Activity Attributes Project Schedule Network Diagram Activity Resource Requirements Resource Calendars Activity Duration Estimates Project Management Plan

2.9.2. Output Project Schedule includes at least a planned start and finish date for each activity created not later than completion of the PMP presented in one of these formats Schedule Model Data schedule milestones schedule activities activity attributes documentation of assumptions and constraints supporting detail Schedule Baseline project baseline start and finish dates Resource Requirements (Updates) Activity Attributes (Updates) Project Calendar (Updates) Requested Changes Project Management Plan (Updates)

2.9.3. Tools Schedule Network Analysis technique that generates the project schedule employs early and late start and finish dates are calculated for each activity Critical Path Method calculate "float" for tasks tasks with zero float are critical activities definition Schedule Compression shorten the schedule without changing scope techniques What-If Scenario Analysis used to assess feasability of project schedule under adverse conditions objective: prepare contingency and response plans most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis Resource Leveling objectives techniques result is aka Critical Chain Method adds duration buffers utilizes non-conservative estimates manages the buffer durations, not float Project Management Software Applying Calendars Adjusting Leads and Lags Schedule Model

2.9.4. Objectives How long will it take to complete the project? which are my critical activities?

2.10. Cost Estimating

2.10.1. Input Enterprise Environmental Factors considers Organizational Process Assets cost estimating policies cost estimating templates historical information project files project team knowledge lessons learned Project Scope Statement WBS WBS Dictionary PMP Schedule Management Plan Schedule Management Plan Staffing Management Plan Risk Register

2.10.2. Output Activity Cost Estimates Activity Cost Estimate Supporting Detail documentation of the basis of estimate documentation of assumptions/constraints documentation of the range Requested Changes Cost Management Plan (Updates)

2.10.3. Tools Analogous Estimating estimates based on previous, similar projects Determine Resource Cost Rates Bottom Up Estimating Parametric Estimating Project Management Software examples Vendor Bid Analysis derive cost from vendor bids Reserve Analysis as more info becomes available, use, reduce or eliminate reserves Cost Of Quality

2.10.4. Objectives How much will the resources cost that are needed to complete each specified activity? How much will it cost to maintain and use the project's product?

2.11. Cost Budgeting

2.11.1. Inputs Project Scope Statement WBS WBS WBS Dictionary Activity Cost Estimates cost estimates for each activity are aggregated Activity Cost Estimate Supporting Detail basis for estimation constraints/assumptions Project Schedule Resource Calendars Contract cost information for purchased products Cost Management Plan

2.11.2. Outputs Cost Baseline authorized time-phased budget at completion typically displayed in the form of an S-curve a component of the PMP used to measure, monitor and control overall cost performance Project Funding Requirements derived from the cost baseline cost baseline + margin Cost Management Plan (Updates) Requested Changes

2.11.3. Tools Cost Aggregation cost estimates are aggregated by work packages according to the WBS Reserve Analysis create reserves Parametric Estimating Funding Limit Reconciliation reconcile expenditure with funding limits

2.11.4. Objectives what will be the total cost of resources required to complete the project? what will be the project funding requirements?

2.12. Quality Planning

2.12.1. Inputs Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets quality policy of the performing organization may be adopted if an organizational quality policy does not exists, the project needs to create its own policy Project Scope Statement Project Management Plan

2.12.2. Outputs Quality Management Plan definition must address Quality Metrics describes what something is and how the quality control process measures it Quality Checklist Process Improvement Plan Subsidiary of the PMP steps for identifying activities that do not add any value areas to consider Quality Baseline records the quality objectives basis for measuring and reporting quality performance Project Management Plan (Updates) additions requested changes

2.12.3. Tools Cost Benefit Analysis Consider Cost-Benefits Tradeoffs benefits of meeting quality standards costs of meeting quality standards Benchmarking comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects generate ideas for improvement find basis for measuring performance Design of Experiments Determine the type and number of tests Detemine the impact of tests on cost of quality definition Cost of Quality two types of costs Additional Quality Tools purpose examples

2.12.4. Objectives How will we deliver a product that will delight our customers?

2.13. Human Resource Planning

2.13.1. Inputs enterprise environmental factors organizational culture and structure existing human resources personnel administration policies marketplace conditions organizational assets standard processes, policies and role descriptions standard policies, processes and role descriptions templates for org charts and position descriptions historical information on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects project management plan Activity Resource Requirements

2.13.2. Tools organizational charts and position descriptions document team member roles and responsibilities objectives three types networking definition constructive way to understand human factors that influence the effectiveness of staffing management options organizational theory Organizational theory provides information regarding the ways that people, teams, and organizational units behave

2.13.3. Outputs roles and responsibilities role responsibility authority competency project organizational charts A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships staffing management plan describes when and how human resource requirements will be met items to consider

2.13.4. Objectives how will we aquire and manage the people required to complete this project

2.14. Communications Planning

2.14.1. Inputs enterprise environmental factors organizational process assets especially historical information and lessons learned project scope statement stakeholder analysis is part of the project scope project management plan constraints assumptions

2.14.2. Tools communications requirements analysis results in the sum of the information needs of the project stakeholders communicate only when necessary to avoid overwhelming stakeholders with minutiae who will communicate with whom communications technology

2.14.3. Outputs communications management plan stakeholder communication requirements information to be communicated person sending the info person receiving the info method of sending the info frequency of communication escalation process methods of updating and refining the communications management plan glossary of common technology

2.14.4. Objectives how can we ensure that all information of interest to each stakeholder is provided in a timely manner and in a meaningful form?

2.15. Risk Management Planning

2.15.1. Inputs Enterprise Environmental Factors Risk attitudes and risk tolerance Organizational Process Assets risk categories concepts and terms standard templates roles and responsibilities authority levels Project Scope Statement Project Management Plan

2.15.2. Tools Planning Meetings and Analysis basic plans for conducting the risk management activities are defined risk cost elements and schedule activities will be developed risk responsibilities will be assigned general organizational templates will be tailored

2.15.3. Outputs Risk Management Plan describes how risk management will be structured and performed includes

2.15.4. Objectives What is needed to manage risk on this project?

2.16. Risk Identification

2.16.1. Inputs Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets information on prior projects Project Scope Statement project assumptions are found in the scope statement project assumptions are found in the scope statement uncertainty in assumptions should be evaluated as potential cause for risks Risk Management Plan Project Management Plan understanding of schedule, cost and quality

2.16.2. Tools Documentation Review a structured review of project documentation include plans and assumptions Information Gathering Techniques brainstorming delphi interviewing root cause identification SWOT analysis Checklist Analysis based on historical info and knowledge the lowest level of the RBS can be used as a checklist Assumptions Analysis Diagramming Techniques cause-and-effect diagrams system or process flowcharts influence diagrams

2.16.3. Outputs risk register list of identified risks list of potential responses root causes of risk updated risk categories

2.16.4. Objectives what risks might affect my project?

2.17. Qualitative Risk Analysis

2.17.1. Inputs Organizational Process Assets Data about risks on past projects and lessons learned Project Scope Statement projects of a recurrent type tend to have more well-understood risks Risk Management Plan Risk Register

2.17.2. Tools Risk Propability and Impact Assessment investigate the likelihood that each specific risk will occur investigate the effect on a project objective such as time, cost, scope, quality Propability and Impact Matrix Risk Data Quality Assessment The use of low quality risk data may lead to a qualitative risk analysis of little use Risk Categorization Risk Urgency Assessment

2.17.3. Outputs Risk Register (Updates)

2.17.4. Objectives Which risks are so severe that I must deal with them proactively?

2.18. Quantitative Risk Analysis

2.18.1. Inputs Organizational Process Assets Information on prior, similar projects studies of similar projects by risk specialists risk databases that may be available from industry or proprietary sources Project Scope Statement Risk Management Plan roles and responsibilities for conducting risk management budgets activities for risk management risk categories RBS risk tolerances of stakeholders Risk Register list of identified risks ranking or priority list of risks risks grouped by category Project Management Plan Project Schedule Management Plan Project Cost Management Plan

2.18.2. Tools Data Gathering and Representation Techniques Interviewing Probability Distributions Expert Judgement Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques Sensitivity Analysis Expected Monetary Value Analysis Decision Tree Analysis Modeling and Simulation

2.18.3. Outputs Risk Register (Updates)

2.18.4. Objectives How do we deal with risks whose impacts are to complicated to assess using qualitative tools?

2.19. Risk Response Planning

2.19.1. Inputs Risk Management Plan Risk Register

2.19.2. Tools Strategies for negative risks or threats avoid transfer mitigate Strategies for positive risks or opportunities exploit share enhance Strategies for both threats and opportunities acceptance Contingent Response Strategy make a response plan that will only be executed under certain conditions trigger events must be defined and tracked

2.19.3. Outputs Risk Register (Updates) adds agreed upon response strategies to each risk budgets and schedule activities required to implement the chosen responses Project Management Plan (Updates) Risk Related Contractual Agreements specify each party's responsibility for specific risks insurance services

2.19.4. Objectives What will we do proactively to minimize the impact of high severity risks on our projects?

2.20. Plan Purchases and Aquisitions

2.20.1. Inputs Enterprise Environmental Factors Conditions of the Marketplace What products, services and results are available in the marketplace where and from whom are they available What terms and conditions Organizational Process Assets Procurement related Organizational policies frequently constrain procurement decisions Project Scope Statement Requirements withcontractual and legal implications Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary Project Management Plan Risk Register Risk Related Contractual Agreements Resource Requirements Project Schedule Activity Cost Estimates Cost Baseline

2.20.2. Tools Make-or-Buy Analysis used to determine whether a product or service should be produced or purchased A buy decision may mean purchase or rent The analysis includes direct and indirect costs Decision also reflects the perspective of the organization Expert Judgement Contract Types Fixed Price Contracts Cost Reimbursable Contracts Time And Material (T&M) Contracts

2.20.3. Outputs Procurement Management Plan describes how the procurement processes will be managed can include guidance for Contract Statement of Work describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow the prospective sellers if they are capable of providing the service or product Make-or-Buy Decisions documents the decisions. This may also include insurance policies to address some of the identified risks. Requested Changes

2.20.4. Objectives Should we use outside skills and resources? How can we best manage relationship with our suppliers?

2.21. Plan Contracting

2.21.1. Inputs Procurement Management Plan Contract Statement of Work Make-or-Buy decisions Project Management Plan Risk Register Risk Related Contractual Agreements Activity Resource Requirements Project Schedule Activity Cost Estimates Cost Baseline

2.21.2. Tools Standard Forms Standard Contracts Standard Description of Procurement Items Non-disclosure Agreements Proposal Evaluation Criteria Checklists Standardized Versions of Bid Documents Expert Judgement Types of Offers Bid, Tender or Quotation Proposal

2.21.3. Outputs Procurement Documents they should be they should include Objectives Minimal Content Published in Evaluation Criteria Developed to rate or score proposals Often included as part of the procurement documents common selection criteria

2.21.4. Objectives How should we solicit offers? How can we ensure that the offers will be useful? How will we evaluate the offers?

3. Executing

3.1. Direct and Manage Project Execution

3.1.1. Inputs Project Management Plan Approved Corrective Actions Documented, authorized directions to bring future performance into conformance with the project management plan Plan to deal with a problem Approved Preventive Actions directions that reduce the probability of risks Plan to mitigate a risk Approved Change Requests authorized changes to project scope, policies, procedures, PMP, schedule, cost or budget Approved Defect Repair request for a correction of a defect found during quality inspection Validated Defect Repair notification that reinspected repaired items have been accepted or rejected Administrative Closure Procedure documents activities, interactions, roles and responsibilities need in executing the administrative closure of the project

3.1.2. Tools Project Management Methodology defines a process that aids the project team in executing the project management plan Defines project management groups, their processes and the related control functions Project Management Information System

3.1.3. Outputs Deliverables Any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that is identified in the PMP and must be produced and provided to complete the project Requested Changes Implemented Change Requests Implemented Corrective Actions Implemented Preventive Actions Implemented Defect Repair Work Performance Information

3.1.4. Objectives How do I correctly and appropriately implement my project plan?

3.2. Perfom Quality Assurance

3.2.1. Inputs Quality Management Plan Quality Metrics Process Improvement Plan Work Performance Information Approved Change Requests Quality Control Measurements Implemented Change Requests Implemented Corrective Actions Implemented Defect Repair Implemented Preventive Actions

3.2.2. Tools Quality Planning Tools and Techniques Quality Audits Process Analysis Quality Control Tools and Techniques

3.2.3. Outputs Requested Changes Recommented Corrective Actions Organization Process Assets (Updates) Quality Standards Project Management Plan (Updates) Quality Management Plan Schedule Management Plan Cost Management Plan

3.2.4. Objectives How can we be sure that we are really executing our quality management plan?

3.3. Aquire Project Team

3.3.1. Inputs Enterprise Environmental Factors Characteristics to consider Organizational Process Assets Roles and Responsibilities define the position, skills and competencies that the project requires Project Organization Charts provide an overview regarding the number of people required by the project Staffing Management Plan identifies the time period each team member will be needed

3.3.2. Tools Pre-Assignment Team members are known in advance Specific people were promised as part of a competitive proposal The project is dependant on the expertise of particular persons Some staff assignments are defined within the project charter Negotiation functional managers Acquisition required services can be aquired from outside sources Virtual Teams Group of people with a shared goal who spend little or no face-to-face time

3.3.3. Outputs Project Staff Assignments Documentation can include Assignment often documented in the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Asignment loading shown through a resource histogram Resource Availability documents the availability period of each team member requires understanding of Staffing Management Plan (Updates)

3.3.4. Objectives How can we get the right people working on the project?

3.4. Develop Project Team

3.4.1. Inputs Project Staff Assignments identifies the specific people that will be involved missing in PMBok according to Roger: Staffing Management Plan identifies training strategies rewards and feedback disciplinary action Resource Availability identifies times that project team members can participate in team development activities

3.4.2. Tools General Management Skills Version 4 calls this Tool "Interpersonal Skill" soft skill understanding sentiemtns of team members anticipate their actions goal: Reduce problems and increase interaction Training all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team members can be formal can be informal Team-Building Activities Objectives Early involvement of team members desirable Should take place throughout the project life cycle One of the most important skills in developing a team environment involves handling team problems and discussing them in the team Bruce Tuckman: Model of Team Development Ground Rules establish clear expectations regarding expectable behaviour Co-Location Placing many or all of the most active team members in the same physical location A meeting room, sometimes called a "war room" Inconsistent with virtual teams Can be temporary Recognition and Rewards Award decisions are made through project performance appraisals Cultural differences should be considered Only desirable behaviour should be rewarded Win-Lose rewards that only a limited number of team members can achieve may hurt team cohesiveness Rewarding behaviour that everyone can achieve tends to improve support among team members Elton Mayo: The Hawthorne Effect Frederick Herzberg: Hygiene Factors

3.4.3. Outputs Team Performance Assessment An informal or formal assessment of the teams effectiveness on the project Can include indicators such as

3.4.4. Objectives How do we move from a group of people to a team?

3.5. Information Distribution

3.5.1. Inputs Communications Management Plan

3.5.2. Tools Communications Skills Sender: Make the information clear and complete Receiver: Confirm that it is properly understood by active feedback Dimensions Key skills for Project Managers Information Gathering and Retrieval System Electronic databases Manual filing systems Repository for technical documentation Project management software Information Distribution Methods Lessons Learned Process Update of the lessons learned database Input to knowledge management system Updated corporate policies, procedures and processes Improved business skills Overall product and service improvements Updates to the risk management plan

3.5.3. Outputs Organizational Process Assets (Updates) Lessons learned documentations Project records Project reports Project presentations Feedback from stakeholders Stakeholder notifications Requested Changes

3.5.4. Objectives How should we gather and organize all the project information?

3.6. Request Seller Responses

3.6.1. Inputs Organizational Process Assets list or files with info on qualified bidders contain relevant past experience Procurement Management Plan Procurement Documents

3.6.2. Tools Bidder Conference meeting with prospective sellers prior to preparing bids or proposals Ensure that all prospective sellers have a clear and common understanding of procurement Responses to questions can be incorporated into procurement documents as amendment Advertising list of sellers can be expanded by placing advertisements into newspapers on professional journals Most government jurisdictions require public advertising of procurements Develop Qualified Seller List

3.6.3. Outputs Qualified Sellers List List of sellers asked to submit a proposal or quotation Procurement Document Package base upon which sellers prepare bid Proposals Constitutes a formal and legal offer sometimes seller is requested to supplement proposal by oral presentation describe the sellers ability and willingness to provide the requested products or services

3.6.4. Objectives How do we support sellers in providing us with useful offers?

3.7. Select Sellers

3.7.1. Inputs Organizational Process Assets formal policies that affect the evaluation of proposals Procurement Management Plan Evaluation Criteria Procurement Document Package Proposals Qualified Sellers List Project Management Plan

3.7.2. Tools Weighting System a method of minimizing personal prejudice a numerical weight is assigned to each criteria proposals are weighted on each criterion rating is multiplied by weight results are summed up to compute a score Independent Estimates prepared as a check on proposed pricing done by someone familiar with the needs of the project, but no interest in being the seller sometimes referred to as a "should-cost" estimate Deviations do not necessarily mean the prospective seller is incompetent Screening System used to filter out inadequate proposals establihing minimum requirements of performance for one or more criteria May also use a weighting system or independent estimates Generally used to eliminate clearly inadequate proposals without doing a complete evaluation Contract Negotiation Clarifies the structure and requirements of the contract Come to a mutual agreement with regard to all contract items May be an independent process with inputs and outputs If the buyer is a large organization, the terms and conditions may be fixed and non-negotiable ("Boiler-Plate") The project manager man not be the lead negotiator, but should be present Seller Ratings System Provides an assessment of overall reliability of the seller Used together with the screening system for an initial evaluation of prospective sellers Include seller's If selected, performance info used to update the system Expert Judgement Proposal Evaluation Techniques Price or cost as the primary determinant Proposals

3.7.3. Outputs Selected Sellers offers judged to be acceptable negotiated an acceptable draft contract Contract aka Includes is a mutually binding legal agreement usually in writing, but does not have to be Signing authority Contract Management Plan a plan to administer the contract based upon specific buyer-specified items within the contract Resource Availability Procurement Management Plan (Updates) Requested Changes

3.7.4. Objectives How do we select the best offer?

4. Monitoring and Controlling

4.1. Monitor and Control Project Work

4.1.1. Inputs Project Management Plan Work Performance Information Rejected Change Requests

4.1.2. Tools Project Management Methodology Project Management Information System Used to monitor and control the execution of activities Used to create new forecasts Earned Value Technique measures performance of the project provides a means to forecast future performance Expert Judgement

4.1.3. Outputs Recommended Corrective Action Recommended Preventive Actions Forecasts Recommended Defect Repairs Recommended Changes

4.1.4. Objectives How am I doing compared to my plan? Where will I end up with regard to deliverables, time and cost?

4.2. Integrated Change Control

4.2.1. Inputs Project Management Plan Requested Changes Work Performance Information Recommended Corrective Actions Recommended Preventive Actions Recommended Defect Repair Deliverables

4.2.2. Tools Project Management Methodology Project Management Information System Expert Judgement

4.2.3. Outputs Approved Change Requests Rejected Change Requests Project Management Plan (Updates) Project Scope Statement (Updates) Approved Corrective Actions Approved Preventive Actions Approved Defect Repair Validated Defect Repair Delivarables

4.2.4. Objectives Do the benefits of the proposed change justify its cost? Is the recommended action the best solution when every aspect of the project is considered?

4.3. Scope Verification

4.3.1. Inputs Project Scope Statement WBS Dictionary Project Scope Management Plan Deliverables

4.3.2. Tools Inspection Includes

4.3.3. Outputs accepted deliverables includes requested changes Recommended Corrective Actions

4.3.4. Objectives How can we get the customer to accept (and pay for) the completed deliverables? How will we deal with any non-acceptance issues?

4.4. Scope Control

4.4.1. Inputs Project Scope Statement Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary Project Scope Management Plan Performance Reports Approved Change Requests Work Performance Information Provide info on work performance such as completed interim deliverables

4.4.2. Tools Change Control System defines the procedure by which the scope can be changed includes Objectives Elements Variance Analysis using performance measurement to assess the magnitude of variation determining the cause of variance relative to the scope baseline Deciding whether corrective action is required Replanning approved change requests may require modifications to Configuration Management System definition Mein Verständnis

4.4.3. Outputs Project Scope Statement (updates) Work Breakdown Structure (Updates) WBS Dictionary (Updates) Scope Baseline (Updates) Requested Changes (Updates) Recommended Corrective Actions (Updates) Organizational Process Assets (Updates) Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.4.4. Objectives How can we determine if the costs of a proposed change can be justified by its benefits? How can we ensure that our change control process is being followed?

4.5. Schedule Control

4.5.1. Inputs Schedule Management Plan Establish how the schedule will be controlled Schedule Baseline provides the as-planned information Performance Reports provides actual performance information Approved Change Requests change requests are used to update the schedule

4.5.2. Tools Progress Reporting Activities which have started Activities in progress Activities which have finished Schedule Change Control System defines the procedures by which the schedule can be changed it includes the paperwork, tracking system and approval levels Performance Measurement magnitude of schedule variation measured by Schedule Performance Index or Schedule Variance An important part is to decide if corrective actions are required Project Management Software provides the ability to track planned dates vs. actual dates helps in forecasting the effect of schedule changes Variance Analysis compare planned schedule dates with actual/forecast dates to detect deviations Schedule Comparison Bar Charts

4.5.3. Outputs Schedule Model Data (Updates) Schedule Baseline (Updates) Performance Measurements calculate document them communicate them to stakeholders Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions Organizational Process Assets (Updates) lessons learned to document the cause of variations Activity List (Updates) Activity Attributes (Updates) Project Scope Management Plan (Updates)

4.5.4. Objectives How can I detect changes from my schedule baseline? If I have a choice on spending more time, how can I ensure that the benefits exceed the cost?

4.6. Cost Control

4.6.1. Inputs Cost Baseline Project Funding Requirements Performance Reports Work Performance Information completed deliverables activities in progress activities not started yet costs incurred Approved Change Requests may affect costs Project Management Plan

4.6.2. Tools Costs Change Control System defines the procedures by which the cost baseline may be changed includes Performance Measurement Analysis Earned Value Technique Forecasting make predictions based on info available at the time of the prediction Budget at completion (BAC) Estimated to Complete (ETC) Estimated at Completion (EAC) Project Performance Reviews Meetings held to assess cost status or progress Performance Reporting Techniques Project Management Software spreadsheet to monitor PV vs AC Variance Management Cost Management Plan describes how cost variances will be managed For example, different responses to major or minor problems Amount of variance tends to decrease as more work is accomplished

4.6.3. Outputs Cost Estimates (Updates) Cost Baseline (Updates) Performance Measurements Forecasted Completion Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions Organizational Process Assets (Updates) Lessons Learned Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.6.4. Objectives How do I Recognize and Manage Cost Variances in my Project? How can I ensure that changes to my cost baseline are justified by the benefits?

4.7. Perform Quality Control

4.7.1. Inputs Quality Management Plan Quality Metrics Quality Checklists Organizational Process Assets Work Performance Information technical performance measures deliverables completion status implementation of required corrective action Approved Change Requests may include need to verify timely correct implementation of approved changes Deliverables

4.7.2. Tools Cause and Effect Diagram aka shows cause-effect chain Control Charts Used to determine whether or not a process is stable Illustrates how a process behaves over time Can be used to assess whether the application of process changes resulted in the desired improvements The upper control limit and the lower control limit are usually set at +/- 3 sigma Can be used for both project and product life cycle processes Flowcharting helps to analyze how problems occur flowchart is a graphical representation of the process Histogram bar chart showing a distribution of variables each column represents an attribute the height of the column represents the relative frequency of the characteristic Pareto Charts histogram, ordered by frequency of occurence used to guide corrective action: fix the problems that are causing the greatest number of defect first Related to Pareto's Law (80/20 rule) Run Chart a line graph showing data points plotted in the order in which they occur shows trends in a process over time used to perform trend analysis to forecast future outcome Scatter Diagram correlation of two values shows the pattern of relationship between two variables Statistical Sampling choose a part of a population for inspection Inspection Examination of the work product to determine whether it conforms to standards Generally includes measurements also called Defect Repair Review action taken to ensure that product defects are repaired and brought into compliance with requirements or specifications

4.7.3. Outputs Quality Control Measurements Results of the application of the various tools and techniques Validated Defect Repair Quality Baseline (Updates) Recommended Corrective Action Recommended Preventive Actions Requested Changes Recommended Defect Repair Organization Process Assets (Updates) completed checklists lessons learned documentation causes of variances reasoning behind the corrective action chosen Validated Deliverables Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.7.4. Objectives How will we ensure that we can deliver what we promised?

4.8. Manage Project Team

4.8.1. Input Organizational Process Assets Utilize Organization's System for Rewarding Employees Project Staff Assignments provide a list of project team members to be evaluated Roles and Responsibilities Project Organization Charts provide a picture of the reporting relationships Staffing Management Plan lists the time periods that team members are expected to work on the project Team Performance Assessment Work Performance Information provides key input with regard to project objectives Observation and conversation provides really useful data Performance Reports

4.8.2. Tools Observation and Conversation Tracking team member performance Providing feedback Resolving issues Coordinating changes to enhance performance Project Performance Appraisals Objectives Need depends on Provided by Conflict Management most frequent sources of conflict questions to think about reduce amount of conflict by Thomas Killman Conflict Model facilitation guideline to succesfull conflict resolution Issue Log Documents who is responsible for a specific issue Target Date Track progress Document completion and lessons learned

4.8.3. Outputs Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions Staffing changes Additional training Disciplinary actions Moving people to different assignments Outsourcing some work Replacing team members Give out recognition and rewards Recommended Preventive Actions Providing cross-training (mitigate team member absences) Additional role clarification added personal time Organization Process Assets (Updates) input to organizational performance appraisals lessons learned documentation Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.8.4. Objectives How do we deal with issues that interfere with team cohesiveness and productivity?

4.9. Performance Reporting

4.9.1. Inputs Work Performance Information completion status of the deliverables Performance Measurements Forecasted Completion Quality Control Measurements Project Management Plan Performance measurement baseline, against which execution is compared Approved Change Requests Deliverables

4.9.2. Tools Information Presentation Tools Table Reporting Software (Excel) Mapping Software (MindManager) Presentation Software (PowerPoint) Graphics Software (Visio) Performance Information, Gathering and Compilation manual filing systems electronic databases project management software engineering drawings design specifications test plans Status Review Meetings regularly scheduled events to exchange information about the project Held at various frequencies and on different levels look back one cycle and forward three cycles Time Reporting Systems represents an overhead cost make as simple as possible consistent with adequate project control align reporting units with the way the work will actually be done Time spent is just history and is a poor forecast tool Cost Reporting Systems often provided outside project team control May not be timely enough or in a form that is useful for project control may be unnecessary if most of the project cost is for human resources

4.9.3. Outputs Performance Reports Organize and summarize the performance data Present the results of any analysis relative to the baseline Should be tailored to the needs of the individual stakeholders to show the status of project activities being performed. Common formats Forecasts Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions Organizational Process Assets (Updates)

4.9.4. Objectives How are we doing on the project releative to our baseline plans? What will our final project cost and timing be?

4.10. Manage Stakeholders

4.10.1. Inputs Communications Management Plan needs and expectations of stakeholders are identified and analyzed and documented in the communications management plan Organization Process Assets templates checklists

4.10.2. Tools Communications Methods successful communications is when sender and receiver reach a common understanding of both information and perspective Sender Message Channel or Medium Receiver Feedback Context Issue Logs used to document and monitor the resolution of issues issues are any point or matter an issue must be stated in a way that it is clear what is required for its resolution an owner is assigned a target date is established for closure documents closure details

4.10.3. Outputs Resolved Issues Approved Change Requests Approved Corrective Actions Organizational Process Assets (Updates) Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.10.4. Objectives

4.11. Risk Monitoring and Control

4.11.1. Inputs Risk Management Plan Risk Register Approved Change Requests Can generate risks Changes exposure to identified risks Work Performance Information Performance Reports

4.11.2. Tools Risk Reassessment Identification of new risks Reassessment of identified risks Should be regularly scheduled as an agenda item at project team status meetings Risk Audits Examine and document the effectiveness of Variance and Trend Analysis Technical Performance Measurement compares technical performance against performance baseline Deviations can identify risks to achieving the project's scope Reserve Analysis Compares the amount of the contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining Determine if the reserve is adequate Status Meetings

4.11.3. Outputs Risk Register (Updates) Outcomes of Requested Changes Imlementing contingency plans or workarounds may change risk exposure May result in changes to risk response Changes should be reviewd through Integrated Change Control Recommended Corrective Actions Recommended Preventive Actions Organizational Process Assets Templates for the risk management plan Probability and impact matrix Risk register Lessons learned Data on the actual costs and durations of project activities Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.11.4. Objectives How can we ensure that our risk plan is being implemented? What do we need to keep our risk plan current?

4.12. Contract Administration

4.12.1. Inputs Contract Contract Management Plan Selected Sellers Performance Reports Seller-developed technical documentation Other deliverables information Seller performance reports Approved Change Requests Contract terms and conditions Statement of work Pricing Description of the products, services or results to be provided Work Performance Information Extent to which quality standards are being met What costs have been incurred or committed Seller invoices Which deliverables have been completed

4.12.2. Tools Contract Change Control System Defines the process by which the contract can be changed Includes Integrated with the project Integrated Change Control System Buyer-Conducted Performance Review A structured review of the seller's progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract May include Objective is to identify Inspections and Audits Used to identify any weaknesses in the seller's work processes or deliverables May include buyer procurement personnel Performance Reporting Payment System Usually handled by the accounts payable system of the buyer Large projects may have its own payment system Includes appropriate reviews and approvals by the project management team Payments are made in accordance with the terms of contract Claims Administration Types of claims Handled as specified in the contract Records Management System a specific set of Automation tools used to manage contract documentation and records Maintains an index of contract documents and correspondence Assists with retrieving and archiving documentation Information Technology

4.12.3. Outputs Contract Documentation Contract Supporting Schedules Requested unapproved contract changes Approved Change Requests Any seller developed technical documentation Deliverables Seller Performance Reports Warranties Financial Documents The result of contract related inspections Any other work performance information Requested Changes Recommended Corrective Actions Organization Process Assets Correspondence with seller Payment schedule and requests Seller performance evaluation documentation Project Management Plan (Updates)

4.12.4. Objectives How do we manage supplier performance?

5. Closing

5.1. Close Project

5.1.1. Inputs Project Management Plan Contract Documentation This is relevant only if suppliers are involved and is used to perform the contract closure process. Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Work Performance Information Deliverables

5.1.2. Tools Project Management Methodology Project Management Information System Expert Judgement

5.1.3. Outputs Administrative Closure Procedure Actions and activities necessary to Contract Closure Procedure Final Product, Service or Result Organizational Process Assets (Updates)

5.1.4. Objectives Are we ready to accept and pay for the deliverables from our suppliers? Is our customer ready to accept and pay for the project's product?

5.2. Contract Closure

5.2.1. Inputs Procurement Management Plan Contract Management Plan Contract Documentation Contract Closure Procedure

5.2.2. Tools Procurement Audits A structured review of the procurement processes Seeks to identify procurement successes and failures Records Management System

5.2.3. Outputs Closed Contracts The Contract Closure Process In multi-phase contracts may close only a phase of the project Unresolved claims may be subject to litigation after contract closure Early termination The buyer provides the seller with a formal written notice that the contract has been completed Organizational Process Assets (Updates) Contract File Deliverable acceptance Lessons learned documentation

5.2.4. Objectives How should we manage the conclusion of the supplier's work?