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Level 4 por Mind Map: Level 4

1. Cell biology

1.1. Domains of life and cellular diversity

1.1.1. Cell anatomy

1.1.1.1. Cell characteristics

1.1.1.1.1. The cytoskeleton

1.1.1.1.2. Plasma membrane

1.1.1.1.3. the endomembrane

1.1.1.1.4. Nucleus

1.1.1.1.5. Mitochondria

1.1.1.1.6. Chloroplasts

1.1.2. Understanding the biological definition of the cell

1.1.3. Tree of life

1.1.4. Understanding the difference between the characteristics of bacterial cells and eukaryote cells and archaea

1.2. Cell transport

1.3. Practical

1.3.1. Scientific methods in cell biology

1.3.1.1. Cell membranes

1.3.1.2. Aseptic techniques

1.3.1.3. Microscope Calibration

1.3.1.4. Microbology

1.3.1.4.1. Obtaining microbial growth data

1.3.1.5. writing a microbiology proforma

1.3.1.6. Cell Fractionation

1.3.1.7. DNA biology and technology

1.4. Cell cycle

1.5. Mitosis

1.6. Meiosis

1.7. Growth cell of population

1.7.1. Diseases causing microbes

1.7.2. Controlling microbial growth

1.8. Gene inheritance and transmission

1.8.1. Transcription

1.8.2. Translation

1.9. Cellular respiration

1.10. Control of gene expression in prokaryotes

1.11. Cell signalling

1.12. Cell specialisation

1.12.1. Cell Matrix and interaction

1.13. Cell behaviours and movement

1.13.1. Cell aging and death

1.14. Cell interaction with the environment

2. Principal of nutrition

2.1. Understanding the basics components in a diet

2.1.1. Macronutrients

2.1.2. Micronutrient

2.2. Concepts of a balanced diet

2.2.1. Evaluating dietary intake for a balanced diet

2.2.1.1. Understanding the patterns of consumption in both foods and diets

2.3. Understanding Anthropometry and Nutrition Assessments

2.4. Dietary Reference Values

2.5. Statistical Analysis

2.5.1. SPSS

2.6. Professional values and ethics

2.7. Physiological changes in the life courses

2.8. Nutritional biomarkers

3. Biochemistry

3.1. Biopolymers

3.1.1. Polymers

3.1.1.1. Cellulose

3.1.1.2. Starch

3.1.1.3. Three types of biopolymers

3.1.1.3.1. Polypeptides

3.1.1.3.2. Polysaccharides

3.1.1.3.3. Polynucleotides

3.1.2. Condensation reactions

3.2. Amino and sugars

3.2.1. Chemistry of Amino acids

3.2.1.1. Structural properties of amino acids

3.2.1.2. Classification of amino acids

3.2.1.2.1. Acid base properties of amino acids

3.2.1.3. Stereochemical properties of amino acids

3.2.2. Chemistry of sugars

3.2.2.1. Carbohydrates

3.2.2.1.1. Functional groups

3.2.2.1.2. Classification of monosaccharides

3.3. Fundamentals of chemistry

3.3.1. Lewis structures

3.3.1.1. Using this concept and molecular geometry to determine the presence of a dipole moment in a molecule

3.3.2. Predicting molecular geometry

3.3.3. Understanding electronegativity

3.3.4. Understanding and using the octet rule to calculate formal charges on atoms and multiple bonding between atoms

3.3.5. Chemical Bonding

3.3.5.1. Types of bonding

3.3.5.1.1. Ionic bond

3.3.5.1.2. Covalent bond

3.3.5.1.3. Metallic bond

3.3.6. Acids and bases

3.3.6.1. Buffer systems

3.3.6.2. pH levels

3.3.6.2.1. The Henderson–Hasselbalch equation

3.3.6.3. Neutralization

3.3.7. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary

3.3.8. Sugars and redox

3.3.8.1. Carbohydrates

3.3.8.1.1. Simple sugars

3.3.8.1.2. Disaccharides and oligosaccharides

3.3.8.1.3. Polysaccharide

3.3.8.1.4. Glycoproteins

3.3.8.2. Aldoses

3.3.8.3. Ketoses

3.3.8.4. Redox reactions

3.3.8.4.1. Oxidation

3.3.8.4.2. Reduction

3.3.9. Protein structures and function

3.3.9.1. Understanding the structure and groups of amino acids

3.3.9.1.1. Understanding the value of 3D protein structures for determining biological functions

3.3.9.2. Peptide linkages

3.4. DNA application and genetic engineering

3.5. Physical Chemistry and kinetics

3.5.1. Reaction reactions

3.5.1.1. Understanding the importance of the presence and function of reaction transition states

3.5.1.1.1. Understanding how reaction transition states influence temperature and reactant concentration on reaction rates

3.6. Enzyme kinetics

3.7. Nucleic acids

3.7.1. Describing and understanding purines and pyrimidines

3.7.1.1. How are these used to form nucleosides and nucleotides

3.7.1.1.1. Polymerisation of nucleotides

3.8. Biochemistry of sugars

3.9. Bioenergetics and metabolism

3.9.1. Glycolysis

3.9.2. Electron transport

3.9.3. Kerb cycle

3.9.4. Photosynthesis

4. Exercise nutrition and health

4.1. Metabolism

4.1.1. Catabolism and anabolism pathways

4.1.1.1. E.g. glycolysis

4.2. Energy balance

4.2.1. Energy systems

4.2.2. Energy expenditure and balance

4.2.3. Factors affecting energy expenditure

4.2.4. Exercise and energy expenditure

4.3. Data analysis in nutrition and exercise science

4.3.1. Using SPSS and nutritics

4.4. Research issues in nutrition and exercise science

4.5. Acute responses to physical activity and exercise

4.5.1. Chronic Acute responses in cardiovascular systems and respiratory system

4.6. Exercise, nutrition and health psychology

4.7. Chronic adaptation to physical activity and exercise

4.8. Experimenting

4.8.1. Anthropometric practical session

4.8.1.1. Screening and risk stratification

4.8.1.2. Cardiovascular response to physical activity

4.8.1.2.1. Fuel metabolism

4.8.2. Douglas bags and gas analysis

4.8.3. Food portions

4.9. Exercise and nutritional demands

4.10. Understanding extremes understanding and over nutrition

4.10.1. Understand the impacts of different types of under nutrition and over nutrition on mortality and morbidity

4.10.1.1. Understanding individual behavior, environmental factors and genetics affect overnutrition

4.11. Communicable and non-communicable diseases from a public health nutrition perspective,

4.12. Consolidation

5. History philosophy and practice

5.1. Understanding past studies, metrology and theroies

5.1.1. Testing hypothesis and analysis of results

5.2. Conducting a starch iodine clock reaction

5.2.1. Using laboratory equipment and procedures

5.2.1.1. Micropipette

5.2.2. Producing data

5.2.2.1. Producing Scatter and line graphs

5.2.2.2. Statistical analysis such as standard deviation and variance

5.3. Reading and critically analyzing scientific

5.4. designing experiments

5.4.1. Thinking of back up methods and solutions when current methods do not work

6. Human physiology

6.1. Homeostasis

6.2. Cells

6.3. Connective tissues

6.4. Epithelia

6.4.1. Muscle force

6.5. Action Potentials

6.6. Muscles

6.6.1. Cardiac Muscles

6.7. Practical in dissecting Lamb's heart

6.8. Cardiac Cycle

6.8.1. Blood pressure

6.8.2. Blood

6.8.3. Respiration

6.8.3.1. Spirometry

6.9. Endocrine system

6.9.1. Feedback signalling

6.10. Autonomic control

6.10.1. Renal filtration

6.10.1.1. Renal Function

6.11. pH regulation

6.11.1. Fluid Balance

6.11.2. Acid base

6.12. Digestion

6.12.1. Hepatic

6.12.1.1. Responses to eating

6.13. Reproduction

7. Level 5

7.1. Diet in Health and Disease

7.1.1. Definitions of illness and welllbeing in health

7.1.1.1. Models of health and wellbeing

7.1.1.1.1. Dahlgren and Whiteland model of determinants of health

7.1.1.2. The three perspective in health

7.1.1.2.1. Disease

7.1.1.2.2. Illness

7.1.1.2.3. Sickness

7.1.2. Epidemiology of different study designs

7.1.3. Abstract writing

7.1.3.1. Introducing journals articles

7.1.3.2. Scientific Abstracts

7.1.4. Changes in dietary intake over time and place

7.1.4.1. Focusing at individual level and population level

7.1.4.1.1. Older people and nutrition

7.1.4.2. Factors that influence patterns in diet and diseases

7.1.4.3. Implications for preventing diet related diseases

7.1.5. Vitamin D and calcium

7.1.5.1. Techniques for assessing vitamin D and calcium

7.1.5.2. Understanding the cause and consequences of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies

7.1.5.2.1. Absorption issues of calcium and iron

7.1.5.2.2. Risk groups

7.1.6. Lactation, breastfeeding and infant feeding

7.1.6.1. Increased energy demands

7.1.6.1.1. Macronutrients

7.1.6.1.2. Micronutrients

7.1.6.2. Weight gain during Pregnancy

7.1.6.3. Health complications

7.1.6.3.1. GI issues

7.1.6.3.2. Low birth weight

7.1.6.3.3. Birth deformities

7.1.6.3.4. Anaemia

7.1.6.4. Physiological process of lactation

7.1.6.4.1. Prolactin reflex

7.1.6.4.2. Oxytocin reflex

7.1.6.5. Nutritional needs for lactation

7.1.6.6. Nutritional and dietary requirement for infants

7.1.6.7. Understanding the benefits of breastfeeding

7.1.6.8. Weaning and complementary feeding

7.1.7. Physiological control of appetite

7.1.8. Iron in health and performance

7.1.8.1. Iron deficiency

7.1.8.2. Physiological functions of iron

7.1.8.3. Iron storage

7.1.8.3.1. Iron transport

7.1.8.4. Understanding what iron is

7.1.8.5. Iron absorption

7.1.8.5.1. Factors that affect iron absorption

7.1.8.6. Iron Requirements

7.1.9. Non-nutritive substances

7.1.9.1. understanding what they are

7.1.9.1.1. They usually block the absorption of nutrients

7.1.9.2. Classes of non-nutritive substances

7.1.10. Fats and carbohydrates

7.1.11. Chronic diseases diet and CHD

7.1.12. Under nutrition in developing countries

7.1.12.1. Understanding the link between diet and infection

7.1.12.2. Measuring the chronic disease risk using the Ashwell chart

7.1.13. Protein in health and performance

7.1.13.1. Assessing protein quality

7.1.13.2. Dietary protein deficiency and excess

7.1.13.3. Protein requirement

7.1.14. Phytochemicals

7.2. Applied Nutrition

7.2.1. Understanding the process of manipulation of food can help improve an individual's diet

7.2.2. Food safety and irradiation

7.2.3. Genetic food modification and Food fortification

7.2.4. Dietary assessment

7.2.4.1. 24hr recall

7.2.4.2. Food diary

7.2.4.3. FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire)

7.2.4.4. Digital Nutritional analysis software

7.2.4.5. Evaluating the diet

7.2.4.5.1. Assessing the changes needed

7.2.4.5.2. Interpreting dietary intake data

7.2.4.5.3. Estimating the dietary requirements

7.2.5. Critical analysis of nutritional data

7.2.5.1. Why and How to collect dietary data

7.2.5.2. Using complex statistical software

7.2.5.2.1. IBM SPSS

7.2.5.3. Analysing published research using dietary assessment methods

7.2.5.3.1. Estimating and reporting errors in research

7.2.6. Using nutritional data

7.2.6.1. Validating data

7.2.6.1.1. Using IBM SPSS to test the difference in data

7.2.6.1.2. Identifying data inaccuracies using Nutritics and SPSS

7.2.7. Energy balance

7.2.7.1. links with under and over nutrition

7.2.8. Communication

7.2.8.1. How to use evidence to inform the public

7.2.9. Reflective professionalism

7.2.9.1. Showing the professional skills found in Nutritionist

7.3. Metabolic Biochemistry

7.3.1. Principles of metabolism

7.3.1.1. Carbohydrate metabolism

7.3.1.1.1. Glycolysis

7.3.1.1.2. Pentose phosphate pathway

7.3.1.1.3. Gluconeogenesis

7.3.1.1.4. Calculating the overall precentage efficiency of glycolysis and ATP capture

7.3.2. Reviewing protein structures

7.3.3. Enzyme Structure, Kinetics and Regulation

7.3.3.1. Laboratory practical

7.3.3.1.1. Enzyme activation and inhibition

7.3.3.1.2. Drawing Lineweaver Burk plot

7.3.3.1.3. Using the Michaelis-Menten Equation to rearrange equations

7.3.4. Cell signalling

7.3.4.1. Explain the basic mechanisms and purpose of cell signalling

7.3.4.1.1. (e.g. GPCR, RTK) including second messengers, downstream consequences of each system and interactive signalling pathways

7.3.4.2. Describing the mechanisms of receptor conformational changes and activity

7.3.4.2.1. Phosphorylation

7.3.4.3. Relating signalling networks to metabolic function and diseases

7.3.4.3.1. Glucose uptake and insulin resistance

7.3.5. Nitrogen metabolism

7.3.5.1. Urea Cycle

7.3.6. Vitamin Lecture

7.3.6.1. Classifications

7.3.6.1.1. Water soluble

7.3.6.1.2. Fat Soluble

7.3.6.1.3. Structure and functions

7.3.7. Lipid Metabolism

7.3.7.1. Lipid Synthesis and Transport

7.3.8. Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylaton

7.3.9. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation

7.3.10. Krebs Cycle

7.4. Research Methods

7.4.1. Research

7.4.1.1. Research Questions and Probability

7.4.2. Experimental Designs

7.4.2.1. Collecting data

7.4.2.2. Displaying data

7.4.2.3. Using statistical data

7.4.2.3.1. Estimation

7.4.2.3.2. Confidence intervals

7.4.2.3.3. Models

7.4.2.3.4. Associations Correlation

7.4.2.3.5. Causation

7.4.2.3.6. Regression

7.4.2.3.7. Non-Parametric Data

7.4.2.3.8. Power and Effect size

7.4.2.3.9. Parametric Tests

7.4.2.3.10. ANOVA

7.4.2.3.11. Repeated Measures ANOVA

7.4.2.3.12. Meta-Analysis

7.4.3. Writing scientific papers

7.4.3.1. Writing a literature review

7.4.3.1.1. Reviewing and using past literature reviews

7.5. Health and Exercise Practices

7.5.1. Discussing the modern health challenge

7.5.2. Models of behaviour change theory, practice and research

7.5.2.1. Behaviour Change and diet

7.5.2.2. Addiction

7.5.3. Exercise and movement

7.5.4. Women and Men's health issue

7.5.5. Stress

7.5.5.1. Its impact on the mind and the body

7.5.6. Chronic lifestyle

7.5.6.1. Illness associated

7.5.6.2. Behavioural change to tackle bad habits

7.5.7. Working in a community

7.5.8. Integrating approaches

7.5.8.1. To promote healthy habits

7.6. Research Techniques in Nutrition

7.6.1. Scientific Method

7.6.1.1. Understanding what and types of study Designs

7.6.1.2. Anthropometry

7.6.1.2.1. Lab practical on this

7.6.1.3. Submaximal testing

7.6.1.3.1. Determining aerobic capacity

7.6.1.3.2. Astrand Rhyming Cycle test

7.6.2. Scientific Paper

7.6.2.1. Writing a scientific report

7.6.2.1.1. Data analysis

7.6.2.1.2. Results writing

7.6.3. Hydration and performance

7.6.3.1. Hydration research techniques

7.6.3.1.1. Sport drink

7.6.4. Focusing on muscle size effects on strength and power

7.6.4.1. Analysing Lab data with SPSS

7.6.5. Comparing nutritional aspects between meals

7.6.5.1. Lab

7.6.5.1.1. Focusing on glucose concentration and satiety measures

7.6.6. Estimating energy expenditure

7.6.6.1. BMR prediction equation

7.6.6.2. Calculating EE and substrate utilisation

7.6.6.3. Exploring TDEE

7.6.6.4. Lab

7.6.6.4.1. Indirect Calorimetry

8. Level 6

8.1. Nutrition and Performance

8.1.1. Concept of nutrition and performance

8.1.1.1. Performance types and demand

8.1.1.2. Factors impacting on nutrition and performance

8.1.2. Client report study

8.1.3. Macronutrient and exercise

8.1.3.1. Carbohydrate feeding and performance practical

8.1.3.1.1. Advance Nutritics

8.1.3.2. Carbohydrate intake and its effects on performance

8.1.3.3. Macronutrient feeding strategies for different performance types

8.1.3.4. Fat and protein intake and its links to performance

8.1.4. Fluid and performance

8.1.4.1. Concepts of fluid balance: dehydration and over-hydration

8.1.4.2. Fluid needs pre-, during and post-exercise

8.1.4.3. Tests to assess hydration status

8.1.4.3.1. Practical in fluids and cognitive performance

8.1.5. Micronutrients and Exercise

8.1.5.1. Vitamin and mineral requirements for active individuals

8.1.5.1.1. Supplementation

8.1.5.1.2. Antioxidants and exercise

8.1.5.2. Practical

8.1.5.2.1. Feeding Athletes

8.1.6. Energy balance and body composition

8.1.6.1. Energy balance

8.1.6.2. Energy Expenditure

8.1.6.3. Making weight

8.1.6.3.1. Disorders related to energy balance

8.1.6.4. Practical in Body composition; using BodPod and SECA scales

8.1.6.5. Athletes with special nutritional needs

8.1.6.5.1. Nutritional requirements for differing groups e.g. vegetarian, diabetic, disabled

8.1.6.5.2. Impacts on performance

8.1.6.6. Ergogenic aids and performance

8.1.6.6.1. Nutritional ergogenic aids

8.1.6.6.2. Impact of ergogenic aids on performance

8.1.6.6.3. Benefits and side effects

8.1.6.6.4. The Placebo effect

8.1.6.6.5. Ergogenic aids practical

8.1.7. Sport and Exercise across the population

8.1.7.1. Exercise, Nutrition and Aging

8.1.7.1.1. Performance and the aging muscle

8.1.7.1.2. Nutritional and exercise interventions to counter loss of function

8.1.7.2. Energy, CHO, protein, fat requirements for Masters athletes

8.1.8. Fatigue and Limits to performance

8.1.8.1. Central and peripheral fatigue

8.1.8.2. Sports-specific fatigue

8.1.8.3. Fatigue and performance

8.2. Global food Challenges

8.2.1. public health vs sustainability

8.2.1.1. Food system sustainability: reducing food waste

8.2.1.2. Feeding the cities: indoor farming in future living model

8.2.1.3. Metrics for sustainability

8.2.2. Hunger and food

8.2.3. Food security: concepts & definitions

8.2.3.1. Food trade, Brexit and implications for food security

8.2.3.2. Food crime

8.2.4. Climate change, water and agriculture

8.2.4.1. biotechnology

8.2.4.2. Changing choices or changing systems

8.3. Research Project

8.3.1. Project Design & Critical Thinking

8.3.1.1. Lab Safety & Risk Assessments

8.3.1.2. Ethics & Human Tissue Act

8.3.1.3. Experimental Design & Data

8.3.2. Systematic Reviews & Meta-Analysis

8.3.3. Exploratory Data Analysis

8.3.3.1. Projects & Statistical Tests

8.3.4. Project Write Up

8.3.4.1. Focus on Introduction & Methods

8.3.4.2. Focus on Results & Discussion

8.3.5. Hypotheses about trends

8.3.6. Practicalities of Analysis

8.4. Applied and Clinical Nutrition

8.4.1. Nutrition and cancer

8.4.2. Cardio-protective diet

8.4.3. Workshops

8.4.3.1. WHO growth chart

8.4.4. Nutrition, immunity and inflammation

8.5. Public Health Nutrition

8.5.1. Public health nutrition strategies for intervention

8.5.1.1. Ecological level

8.5.1.2. Individual level

8.5.2. Public Health Nutrition Cycle

8.5.3. Public Health aspects of CHD and Diabetes

8.5.3.1. Public Health aspects of Stroke

8.5.4. Public Health aspects of Vitamin A Deficiency Disorder (VADD)

8.5.5. Public Health aspects of Iodine deficiency Disorders – IDD

8.5.6. Public Health challenges of infectious diseases

8.5.6.1. Nutritional support

8.5.7. Food Choice and Policy Intervention

8.5.8. Public Health Epidemiology

8.5.9. Eating disorders

8.5.10. Workshops

8.5.10.1. WHO Growth Charts Workshop

8.5.10.2. CHO counting – DAFNE

8.5.11. Dietary, clinical and therapeutic aspects of hypertension

8.5.12. Nutrition in Emergency

8.5.13. Growth and nutrition throughout Childhood

8.5.14. Gastro Intestinal disorders

8.5.15. Diet and Allergies

8.5.16. Epigenetics and Nutrigenomics

8.5.17. Case studies

8.5.17.1. Interrelationship of Folic acid and human health

8.5.17.2. Urea cycle and Kidney disease

8.5.18. Talks

8.5.18.1. Fatty acids brain development and mental health by Prof. Michael Crawford

8.5.18.2. Key Advice to a young Nutritionist