My Foundations of Education

My personal interpretation of topics discussed in Foundations of Education.

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My Foundations of Education Door Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. Students with Special Needs

1.1.1. Education of All Handicapped Children Law (1975)

1.1.1.1. Right of access to public education programs

1.1.1.2. Individualization of services

1.1.1.3. Least restrictive environment

1.1.1.4. Scope of broadened services to be provided by schools and a set of procedures for determining them

1.1.1.5. Procedures for identifying disability

1.1.1.6. Principles of primary state and local responsibilities

1.1.2. Regular Education Initiative (1980s)

1.1.2.1. Mainstreaming children with disabilities into regular classes

1.1.3. Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act (2001)

1.1.3.1. Appropriate transition services to prepare students with disabilities for after graduation

1.2. Coleman Round Three

1.2.1. Where a student goes to school is related to race and socioeconmic background

1.2.2. Racial and socioeconomic composition of a school have a greater effect on student achievement than race and class

1.2.3. school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status within school interactions dominated by middle-class values are responsible for gaps in student achievement

2. Philosophy of Education

2.1. Generic Notions

2.1.1. Pragmatism

2.1.1.1. Doing what works best for the student; no two students learn exactly the same, so they should not be taught in exactly the same way

2.1.2. Progressiveism

2.1.2.1. Experimental learning process the is centered around the needs and interests of the child

2.2. Key Researchers

2.2.1. John Dewey

2.2.1.1. Father of American Pragmatic School of Thought

2.2.2. Sir Frances Bacon

2.2.2.1. Philosopher who encouraged educational processes mirrored after the Scientific Method

2.3. Goal of Education

2.3.1. Dialect of Freedom

2.3.1.1. The student right to freedom of choice regarding choice of curriculum and course of study

2.3.1.2. With the freedoms afforded to the student, there are responsibility that students take on for their own discipline and self management

2.3.2. Scientific Method of Education

2.3.2.1. Identify an educational problem to be solved, research for the answers, note what methods work to create solutions

2.4. Role of a Teacher

2.4.1. Moderator of Learning Process

2.4.1.1. Pay attention to students and how they respond and learn the best.

2.4.1.2. Encourage growth based on interest and need

2.4.2. Facilitator of Inquiry Method

2.4.2.1. Rather than giving answers to the student to memorize, instruct students where they can find the answers for themselves

2.5. Method of Instruction

2.5.1. Inquiry

2.5.1.1. Encouraging students to identify a problem, figure out where to look for the answer, then search for the solution

2.5.2. Problem Solving

2.5.2.1. Identify a problem, figure out what subjects are needed to address the problem, what is the best way to search for solutions, then the results prove the effectiveness of the method

2.6. Curriculum

2.6.1. Integrated Curriculum

2.6.1.1. No problems or inquiry methods are able to be addressed with just one of the core curriculum subjects, but rather require a combination of subjects used all at once

2.6.2. Discipline Centered Curriculum

2.6.2.1. Curriculum choices should grow and progress with the student as they develop into secondary education. After learning basics in all core subjects, continuing education in subjects depends on what type of discipline the student wants to continue to pursue

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. the deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to transmit, evoke, or acquire knowledge, attitudes, skills, or sensibilities, as well as any outcomes of that effort

3.2. Liberal Perspective

3.2.1. Market Capitalist Economy

3.2.2. Government is essential to intervene on behalf of society

3.2.2.1. Economic

3.2.2.1.1. financial equality

3.2.2.2. Social

3.2.2.2.1. social justice

3.2.2.3. Political

3.2.3. It is up to the government to intervene of behalf of those in need of justice (especially social justice)

3.3. Progressivism

3.3.1. Schools are essential to solving problems in society

3.3.2. Schools are a vehicle of upward mobility

3.3.3. Schools bring out individual potential

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Major Stakeholders

4.1.1. Alabama Senators

4.1.1.1. Richard C. Shelby

4.1.1.2. Jeff Sessions

4.1.1.3. Presiding officer of Alabama Senate

4.1.1.3.1. Kay Shelby

4.1.2. Alabama House of Representatives

4.1.2.1. District 76

4.1.2.1.1. Representative Thad McClammy

4.1.2.2. Speaker of the House

4.1.2.2.1. Mike Hubbard

4.1.3. Alabama State Department of Education

4.1.3.1. State Superintendent

4.1.3.1.1. Dr. Tommy Bice

4.1.3.2. State School Board Representative

4.1.3.2.1. District 3

4.1.4. Montgomery Public Schools

4.1.4.1. Superintendent

4.1.4.1.1. Margaret Taylor- Allen

4.1.4.2. School Board

4.1.4.2.1. Dr. Lesa Keith

4.1.4.2.2. Eleanor Lewis Dawkins

4.1.4.2.3. W. Durden Dean

4.1.4.2.4. Mary Biers

4.1.4.2.5. Melissa B. Snowden

4.1.4.2.6. Robert Porterfield

4.1.4.2.7. Roberta Collins

4.1.4.3. Department of Special Education

4.1.4.3.1. Director

4.2. French Education

4.2.1. Centralized Education

4.2.1.1. Government controlled schooling at every level

4.2.1.2. Government micromanagement down to classroom level

4.2.2. Two different public school systems

4.2.2.1. One for ordinary, working- class level students

4.2.2.2. One for social elite students

4.2.3. Grandes Ecoles

4.2.3.1. the educational system for upper class students that prepares students for government and educational elites and leaders

4.2.3.2. To advance in French society, you MUST have all of the following criteria

4.2.3.2.1. Academically elite

4.2.3.2.2. Upper class

4.2.3.2.3. Affluent

4.2.4. Educational Style

4.2.4.1. Excessively verbal

4.2.4.2. Based on aesthetics of speech

4.2.4.3. Intellectual attainment based on aesthetics

4.2.5. How the French define their education system

4.2.5.1. Meritocratic- advancement based on merit

4.2.5.2. How it actually is- advancement based on merit BUT only if you are upper class and really smart

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Social Efficency Curriculum

5.1.1. Students with different needs and different aspirations should receive different types of education

5.1.1.1. Technical and trade centered schooling

5.1.1.2. College preparatory education

5.1.1.3. Basic and essential education for smooth transition from school to job

5.2. Modern Functionalist Theory

5.2.1. School curriculum prepares student to function in society

5.2.1.1. Democratic Society

5.2.1.1.1. Society where are our country's leaders are chosen by the people

5.2.1.2. Meritocratic Society

5.2.1.2.1. Society where progress is based on merit rather than birthright

5.2.1.3. Expert Society

5.2.1.3.1. Society where progress is based on education earned and preparation

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Urbanization

6.1.1. Industrialization brings people to cities

6.1.2. Reformers demand government intervention to improve conditions

6.1.2.1. Better work conditions

6.1.2.2. Improved commerce equality

6.2. Progressive Movement

6.2.1. Reform following Industrialization Movement carries over to school reform

6.2.1.1. Basic socialization skills for students

6.2.1.2. Cleanliness demanded for urban students

6.2.2. Schools begin to incorporate training unrelated to academic skill

6.2.2.1. Schools become vehicles of social expectations

6.2.2.2. Schools provide basic living skills to immigrants

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Interactional Theory

7.1.1. Rather than looking at the bigger picture of how schools and society are related, all the small details need more attention

7.1.2. How school interactions occur on a daily, local basis can show more about how effective schools are

7.1.3. Looking up close at the smaller details about schools can provide insight where there is need for immediate improvement

7.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

7.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

7.2.1.1. The attitudes students learn in school carry over to the rest of life- acceptable expectations, perseverance, respect, and diligence are fist taught and best taught in schools- virtues valued in society

7.2.1.2. How to search for and attain knowledge are the lessons retained from schooling

7.2.2. Teacher Behavior

7.2.2.1. Adults serve as role models that students look to for structure, respect, and security. Teacher behavior is the catalyst for how students learn to respond to the world them.

7.2.2.2. Teacher behavior is the strongest communicator for students to learn appropriate boundaries they will carry to society

7.2.3. Social mobility

7.2.3.1. The kind of school a student attends affects secondary education, employment opportunities, which all affect social mobility.

7.2.3.2. The social mobility surrounding students as they mature is an indicator of their possible social attainment

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Conflict theory

8.1.1. Educational outcomes are based on family background

8.1.2. Individual differences still create significant inequalities

8.1.3. Radical measures to reduce inequality

8.2. School financing

8.2.1. Public schools all recieve funding, but the actual amount of school funds differ greatly depending on where the school is located

8.2.2. Relying on local and state taxes will not fund schools

8.2.3. School finance factors do affect achievement

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Finance Reforms

9.1.1. Rodriguez v. San Antonio (1973)

9.1.1.1. "No constitutional right to an equal education"

9.1.1.1.1. Catalyst for state-level legislation to acquire equal funding for urban schools that were underfunded

9.1.2. Supplemental Package Programs (1998)

9.1.2.1. Funded preschools and renovate urban school facilites

9.1.2.1.1. Provide adequate space for all educational programs

9.1.3. Money Follows the Child (2009)

9.1.3.1. Remedies and implements a formula to allocate funding based on student need

9.1.3.1.1. Legislative acknowledgement that there is a difference between equal dollars in funding and equal amounts of funding proportionate to student needs

9.2. Teacher Education

9.2.1. Reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs

9.2.1.1. Students must reach up to a specific standard if they want to teach

9.2.2. Lack of rigor in teacher education programs

9.2.2.1. Easy teacher education programs lead to lazy teachers

9.2.3. Need to attract and retain competent teachers

9.2.3.1. Educators should be pursued and maintained in a similar fashion to desirable business executives