Perception, Personality, and Emotions

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Perception, Personality, and Emotions Door Mind Map: Perception, Personality, and Emotions

1. Perceptual Errors (Shortcuts)

1.1. Positive: less time & effort

1.1.1. Make task more manageable

1.1.2. Allow us to make accurate perceptions rapidly

1.2. Negative: Leave out important info

1.2.1. Not foolproof

1.2.2. Distort

1.3. ATTRIBUTION THEORY - The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused

1.3.1. You witness outcome/behaviour

1.3.2. You conclude its causes

1.3.3. Internal vs. external attribution Internal Attitude to school External Snow

1.3.4. Three rules about behaviour 1. DISTINCTIVENESS – A behavioural rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations Unusual = likely external attribution 2. CONSENSUS – A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced w/ a similar situation responds in the same way High consensus = likely external attribution 3. CONSISTENCY – A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time More consistent = likely internal attribution

1.3.5. How attributions get distorted Errors or biases Tend to underestimate external & overestimate internal FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR – The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors & overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others Ex. Sales manager attributes poor performance to laziness of salespeople rather than innovative, more attractive competitor Ex. Steve Jobs as a charismatic visionary SELF-SERVING BIAS – The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors Success = internal Failure = external Overestimate own good & underestimate the good behaviour of others

1.4. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION – People’s selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience & attitudes

1.4.1. Impossible to see everything

1.4.2. Shortcut, speed-read → inaccurate

1.4.3. We see what we want

1.5. HALO EFFECT – Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic

1.5.1. General impression of an individual based on a single characteristic

1.5.2. General views contaminate specific ones

1.6. CONTRAST EFFECTS – The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered

1.6.1. We don’t evaluate people in isolation

1.7. PROJECTION – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people

1.7.1. Assume people are similar to us Judgments are accurate when person is actual similar to observe Judging dissimilar person = inaccurate judgments

1.7.2. Compromise ability to respond to individual differences

1.7.3. People seen as more homogenous than they really are

1.8. STEREOTYPING – Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs

1.8.1. Generalizations used to make decisions quickly by simplifying complex world

1.8.2. HEURISTICS – Judgment shortcuts in decision making Make it easier to deal w/ unmanageable number of stimuli

1.8.3. Problem: generalize inaccurately or too much

1.8.4. Stereotypes sometimes so deeply ingrained & powerful that they influence life-and-death decisions

1.8.5. Problem: often widespread & often useful

1.8.6. Check to make sure not unfairly or inaccurately applying stereotyping

1.8.7. Stereotypes can lead to strong negative reactions ex. Prejudice PREJUDICE – An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group Can lead to negative consequences ex. discrimination Starts w/ stereotypes & then has negative emotional content added Harmful to target of behaviour

1.9. Ways to reduce perceptual errors

1.9.1. 1. Inquiry vs. advocacy Learn about others' "mental model"

1.9.2. 2. MBWA Management by walking around Undercover boss, president of AVIS, random visits

1.9.3. 3. Increase empathy Sensitivity training/diversity training Examples CNIB NHL

1.10. Typesof perceptual errors

1.10.1. Mental model

1.10.2. Attribution theory

1.10.3. Social ID theory 1. Associate w/ a certain group 2. Compare a certain group 3. Comparison 4. Rank

1.10.4. Stereotypes

1.10.5. Prejudice

2. PERCEPTION - The process by which individuals organize & interest their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

2.1. Perceptions can differ from reality

2.2. Behaviour based on perception

2.3. Difficult to change minds after acquired perceptions

2.4. Why do perception @ judgement matter?

2.4.1. Judgements have important consequences for for organizations Employees scared to speak up b/c fear of negative perceptions from coworkers who valued status quo Positive perceptions have positive impact on retention, customer loyalty, financial outcomes Perception of past performance determines preparation in subsequent tasks Perception = large role in how people are evaluated

2.4.2. Employment interviews Involve perceptual judgements Form impressions within a tenth of a second based on first glance Most interviewers' decisions change very little after first four or five minutes

2.4.3. Performance expectations SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY/PYGMALION EFFECT – A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent w/ how he or she is perceived by others Expectations become reality

2.4.4. Performance evaluations Depend on perceptual process Future closely tied to appraisal Evaluated in subjective terms Problematic b/c of errors i.e. selective perception, contrast effects, halo effect, etc. Sometimes say as much about evaluator

3. Factors Influencing Perception

3.1. The perciever

3.1.1. Personal characteristics Attitudes, motives, interests, experience, expectations

3.1.2. Perceptions of others reveals a lot about the person themseves Positive perception Perceiver described by others as enthusiastic, happy, kind-hared, emotionally stable, capable, courteous Negative perceptions Perceiver described by others as narcissistic & antisocial

3.2. The target

3.2.1. Target's characteristics Novelty Motion Sound Size Background We don't look at people in isolation Proximity

3.2.2. Ex. loud people stand out in a group of quiet people

3.3. The situation

3.3.1. Context Time Work setting Social setting

4. Self-monitoring

4.1. SELF-MONITORING - A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust behaviour to external, situational factors

4.1.1. High self-monitoring Adaptable Highly sensitive to external cues Can behave different in different situations Capable of presenting striking contradictions b/w their public & private selves Pay closer attention to others' behaviour More capable of conforming More mobile in careers & receive more promotions (internal & Cross-organizationals) More likely to occupy central positions Receive better performance ratinks More likely to emerge as leaders & (???) show less organizational commitment

4.1.2. Low self-monitoring Display true dispositions & attitudes in every situation High behavioural consistency b/w who that are & what they do

5. Type A & Type B Personalities

5.1. TYPE A PERSONALITY - A personality w/ aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more & more in less & less time & if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people

5.1.1. Highly prized in north america Positively associated w/ ambition & successful acquisition of material goods

5.1.2. Tend to have following charcteristis Always moving, walking, eating rapidly Feel impatient w/ rate at which most events take place Strive to think or d more than two things at once Cannot cope w/ liesure time Obsessed w/ numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire

5.1.3. Operate under moderate to high levels of stress

5.1.4. Subject themselves to continuous time pressure Life of deadlines

5.1.5. Fast workers who emphasize quantity over wuality

5.1.6. In managerial positions work long hours & frequently make poor decisions (made too fast)

5.1.7. Rarely creative

5.1.8. Rely on past experiences when faced on problems

5.1.9. Will not take necessary time to develop unique solutions

5.1.10. Behaviours easier to predict than type B

5.1.11. Do better in interviews b/c more likely to be judged as having desirable traits ex. high drive, competence, aggressiveness & success motivation

5.1.12. Salespeople

5.2. TYPE B PERSONALITY - A personality that is described as easy-going, relaxed & patient

5.2.1. Rarely harried by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in an ever-decreasing amount of time

5.2.2. Tend to have following characeristics Never suffer from a sense of time urgency w/ its accompanying impatience Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation Play for fun & relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost Can relax w/o guilt

5.2.3. More frequently make it to the top Senior executives Quality over quantity

6. Emotional Intelligence (EI)

6.1. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE - An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities & competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping w/ environmental demands & pressures

6.2. Ability to

6.2.1. 1. Be self-aware

6.2.2. 2. Detect emotions in others

6.2.3. 3. Manage emotional cues & inforation

6.3. Those with high EI most likely to be effective

6.3.1. Ex. study on American presidents

6.4. Strongly & positively correlated w/ job performance, high EI >>> better workers

6.5. Controversial OB concept, supporters & detractors - Too early to tell whether concept is useful but is is here to stay

6.5.1. Support Intuitive appeal Almost everyone would agree that it is good to possess street smarts & social intelligence EI predicts criteria that matter Growing evidence suggests that high EI >>> good job performance EI is biologically based There is a part of the brian that governs emotional processing EI = neurologically based in ways that are unrelated to standard intelligence measures EI is genetically influenced, real underlying biological factor

6.5.2. Criticisms EI is too vague a concept Researchers: what is it exactly? EI cannot be measured Since form of intelligence, should have right & wrong answers The validity of EI is suspect So closely related to intelligence & personality >> doesn't offer anything unique

7. Emotional Labour

7.1. EMOTIONAL LABOUR - When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions - Emotions involved in work along w/ physical & mental labour

7.1.1. Emerged from studies on service jobs Ex. flight attendants

7.1.2. Relevant to almost every job

7.1.3. True challenge = need to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another EMOTIONAL DISSONANCE - Inconsistencies b/w the emotions people feel & the emotions they show Heavy toll: frustration, anger, resentment >>> emotional exhaustion & burnout

7.1.4. Increasing importance in effective job performance >>> need to understand it in OB

7.1.5. Creates dilemmas for employees Ex. working w/ people you don't like sucks but you have to pretend to be friendly Helpful to separate emotions, how we experience emotions not always the same as how we show it FELT EMOTIONS - An individual's actual emotions DISPLAYED EMOTIONS - Emotions that are organizationally required & considered appropriate in a given job - Learned, not natural

7.1.6. Displaying fake emotions requires suppression of real ones SURFACE ACTING - Hiding one's inner feelings to display what is expected Displayed emotions More stressful b/c you're faking it Give employees that engage in this breaks, a change to relax & recharge >>> make them more effective DEEP ACTING - Trying to modify one's true inner feelings to match what is expected Felt emotions Doesn't feel as exhausting Despite negative consequences for displaying false positive emotions, a recent study suggests that as people age, engaging in positive emotions & attitudes (even when not) enhances emotional well-being

7.2. We should care about emotions in the workplace

7.2.1. Emotions critical to rational thinking Emotions provide important info on how we understand world around us

7.2.2. Key to good decision making = employ both thinking & feeling in decisions

7.2.3. High EI >>> better work performance

7.2.4. Entire workplace can be affected by positive or negative workplace emotions

7.2.5. Affective events theory

8. PERSONALITY – The stable patterns of behaviour & consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to & interacts w/ others

8.1. What is personality?

8.1.1. PERSONALITY – The stable patterns of behaviour & consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to & interacts w/ others

8.1.2. Individual personalities can impact organizational behaviour

8.1.3. Measurable traits that a person exhibit

8.2. Measuring personality

8.2.1. Use of personality tests in hiring decisions Best fit Better understand & more effectively manage

8.3. Most common = self-report surveys

8.3.1. Work well when well constructed

8.3.2. Weaknesses: lie, impression management, accuracy ex. bad mood that day

8.3.3. When people know their personality scores will be used for hiring decisions → rate themselves half a standard deviation more

8.3.4. Observer ratings = independent assessment

8.3.5. Self-report & observer ratings strongly correlated Observer-ratings still better predictor Both offer something unique

8.4. Personality Determinants

8.4.1. Heredity Argues that genes = ultimate explanation Ex. similarities b/w twins separated at birth had a lot in common Genetics can explain 50% of personality differences & more than 30% of variation in occupational & leisure interests Blood-related siblings likely to have more similar personalities Some personality aspects change over time but rank orderings do not Personality changes more in adolescence, stable in adulthood

8.5. PERSONALITY TRAITS – Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour, characteristics exhibited in a large number of situations - The more consistent, the more important in describing the individual - Individuals react differently to personality traits b/c of perception

8.5.1. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) - A personality test that taps four characteristics & classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types - 100 questions - Most widely used - Asks people how they usually feel or act in situations & then classifies them Extraverted/introverted Measures where we direct our energy when dealing w/ people Sensing/intuitive Looks at how we process information Thinking/feeling Thinking Feeling Judging/perceiving Judging Perceiving 16 possible combinations of these = 16 personality types INTJs are visionaries ESTJs are organizers ENTPs are conceptuallizers NTs = 5% of population Widely used but evidence mixed whether it is a valid measure of personality Most evidence suggests it is not Criticism: it pigeonholes people into 1 of 2, no in-betweens At most, valuable tool for increasing self-awareness & providing career guidance Results unrelated to job performance so managers should not use it as selection tool

8.5.2. BIG FIVE PERSONALITY MODEL – A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions EXTRAVERSION – A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative & assertive Comfort level w/ relationships Extraverts = happier Extraverts = riskier AGREEABLENESS – A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is good-natured, cooperative & trusting Propensity to defer others More agreeable = only SLIGHTLY happier than less agreeable CONSCIENTIOUSNESS – A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent & achievement-oriented Measure of reliability EMOTIONAL STABILITY – A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) vs. nervous, depressed & insecure (negative) Labelled by its converse - neuroticism, taps into ability to withstand stress Emotionally stable people = happier OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE – A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is imaginative artistically sensitive & curious Range of interests & fascination w/ novelty More open = more creative