Workplace Violence

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Workplace Violence Door Mind Map: Workplace Violence

1. Defining Workplace Aggression & Violence

1.1. VIOLENCE - An actual physical assault or threat of an assault

1.2. AGGRESSION - Behaviour by an individual or individuals within or outside an organization that is intended to physically or psychologically harm a worker or workers & that occurs in a work-related context

1.3. HARASSMENT - Engaging in annoying or embarrassing conduct against a worker in a workplace-conduct that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome

1.3.1. Added ti coverage under WSIB along w/ bullying

1.4. EMOTIONAL ABUSE - Another term for bullying

1.5. MOBBING - A term used mainly in Europe to refer to bullying

1.6. BULLYING - Aggressive, nonphysical behaviours perpetrated by organizational members over a prolonged period of time

1.7. INCIVILITY - Rude or discourteous behaviour

1.8. SEXUAL HARASSMENT - Intentional, persistent & unwelcome sexual conduct or remarks that occur despite resistance from the victim

1.9. GENDER HARASSMENT - Comments or actions seen as creating a hostile environment based on gender

2. The Prevalence of Workplace Aggression

2.1. GENDER HARASSMENT - Comments or actions seen as creating a hostile environment based on gender

2.2. UNWANTED SEXUAL ATTENTION - Persistent & unwelcome sexual comments or attention

2.3. SEXUAL COERCION - The attempt to extort sexual cooperation; can take the form of subtle or explicit job-related threats

2.4. More violence & aggression in Canadian workplaces than American

2.5. Careful when investigating, peoples' careers are in your hands

3. Sources of Workplace Violence

3.1. Types of violence

3.1.1. TYPE I VIOLENCE - Violence committed by someone w/ no legitimate relationship to the organization, often while committing another criminal act

3.1.2. TYPE II VIOLENCE - Violence committed by clients or customers of the organization

3.1.3. TYPE III VIOLENCE - Violence committed by coworkers ex. other employees of the organization

3.1.4. TYPE IV VIOLENCE - Violence committed by the spouse or partner of the victom

4. Prevalence by Source

4.1. Research suggests that workplace violence is perpetrated by members of the public

4.2. Respondents to Canadian public service employment service reported that:

4.2.1. Violence was most likely from clients, residents, or other members of the public Approximately 71% of those reporting workplace violance

4.2.2. Violence was not as likely from coworkers Approximately 34% of those reporting workplace violence

5. Risk Factors for Workplace Aggression

5.1. Most workplace homicides in the US are perpetrated by members of public during robbery or similar crime

5.2. Robbery = primary risk factor for occupational homicide but it is not the primary risk factor for nonfatal assaults

5.3. Industries reporting high rates of nonfatal assaults

5.3.1. Health care

5.3.2. Education

5.3.3. Social services

5.3.4. Law enforcement

6. Occupational Risk Factors

6.1. First overall risk factor is working with the general public

6.2. More specific risk factors

6.2.1. Scheduling

6.2.2. Authority

6.2.3. Valuables

6.2.4. Taking Care of Others

6.3. IMMINENT RISK - The short-term risk of violence occurring in the current situation

6.3.1. ASSAULT CYCLE - A model suggesting that violence occurs only after a period of escalation

6.4. Workplace violence assessment

6.4.1. Look at area

6.4.2. Alleyway? curved mirrors? cameras? bullet proof glass?

7. Prevention

7.1. Type I violence

7.1.1. Because most workplace homicides occur during robbery, actions aimed at preventing robberies will likely reduce number of workplace homicides

7.1.2. Increasing visibility Increase perceived risks for potential criminals, thereby deterring crime Ex. Taxi drivers

7.1.3. Reducing rewards Ex. taxi drivers Minimal amount of money in cab

7.1.4. Taget hardening Focus on physical designs that make it difficult to assault employees Ex. taxi drivers

7.2. Type II violence

7.2.1. Service providers are among most common victims of nonfatal workplace violence

7.2.2. Environmental strategies Metal detectors Surveillance cameras Bullet-resistant glass surrounding reception areas & nursing stations Effective lighting both inside & outside hospitals Curved mirrors at hallways intersections Presence of security personnel Card-controlled entrances and security checks to limit public access to restricted areas

7.2.3. Organizational/administrative strategies Organizations should establish policies & practices to prevent aggression Written policy should outline what constitutes unacceptable behaviour Patients, visitors & employees should be aware of the document Policies that encourage the reporting of violence are also necessar Management should stress importance of reporting acts of aggression Management should take all reports & ensure that employees are aware of the organization's commitment to safety

7.2.4. Behavioural/interpersonal strategies Training may give employees confidence to deal w/ potentially dangerous situations Hospital workers who received training targeting workplace violence reported higher levels of perceived control compared to workers who did not receive training Perceptions of control positively correlated w/ employee emotional well-being & negatively associated w/ employee fear of future violence

7.3. Type III violence

7.3.1. Comprehensive workplace violence program needs to address the potential for coworker aggression & violence

7.3.2. Triggers for workplace aggression Unfair treatment Abusive supervision Role stress Job insecurity

7.3.3. Prevention focuses on Eliminating or managing triggering events Improving interpersonal relationships in workplace Creating open & transparent environment Developing specific procedure for employees to resolve conflicts & discuss grievances Training in conflict resolution & creation of confidential & effective complaint procedures Organizational policy that clearly labels violent & aggressive acts as inappropriate

7.4. Type IV violence

7.4.1. Intimate partner violence almost always perpetrated by someone who is not a member of the organization ex. spouse

7.4.2. Managers & organizational decision makers must be educated about forms that intimate partner violence can take

7.4.3. Be aware of the resources that are available ex. EAP

7.4.4. Allow for temporary accommodation during times of crisis Ex. additional security or escorts to/from parking

8. Sexual Harassment

8.1. Two different types of sexual harassment

8.1.1. 1. Sexual coercion/quid pro quo Attempt to extort sexual cooperation Subtle or explicit job-related threats Promise of job-related rewards

8.1.2. 2. Hostile environment Occurs w/o any coercion or extortion Creates hostile, intimidating, discriminating environment Sexually harassing behaviours range from insulting misplaced comments to pervasive sex-related verbal or physical conduct, to life threats or physical attacks

8.2. Sexual harassment as a health & safety issue

8.2.1. Implications for organizations 1. Employers are responsible for the due care & protection of their employees' human rights in the workplace 2. Employers are liable for the discriminatory conduct of & sexual harassment by their agents & supervisory peronnel 3. Sexual harassment by a supervisor is automatically attributed to the employer when such harassment results in a tangible job-related disadvantage to the employee 4. Explicit company policy forbidding sexual harassment & the presence of procedures for reporting misconduct may or may not be sufficient to offset liability 5. Employers will be pressured to take a more active role in maintaining a harassment-free work environment 6. Employers will feel greater discomfort w/ intimate relationships that develop b/w supervisors & their subordinates b/c of legal implications May motivate employers to discourage such office relationships 7. Employers' intentions to have effective sexual harassment policies are insufficient To avoid liability, the policies must be functional & must work as well in practice as in theory

8.3. In Canada, 56% of working women indicated they had experienced sexually harassing behaviour in previous year

8.3.1. Insulting jokes & staring

8.3.2. Physically violent actions occur in workplace, but rare