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Selection Door Mind Map: Selection

1. Selection

1.1. The strategic importance of selection

1.1.1. Quality of human resources determines organizational performance Candidates that fit w/ strategic direction

1.1.2. Inappropriate selection decisions are costly

1.1.3. Significant legal implications

1.2. Avoiding legal problems

1.2.1. Use selection criteria based on the job

1.2.2. Assess applicant's ability to meet expectations

1.2.3. Scrutinize applicant-provided info

1.2.4. Obtain authorization for reference checking

1.2.5. Save all records & info

1.2.6. Reject applicants who make false statements

1.3. SELECTION - The process of choosing among individuals who have been recruited to fill existing or projected job openings

2. Supply Challenges

2.1. Large applicant pool not always possible

2.2. Labour shortages & surpluses

2.3. SELECTION RATIO - The ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants

2.3.1. Small ratio ex. 1:2 - limited applicants, low-quality recruits

2.3.2. Large ratio ex. 1:400 - job ad too vague, automate screening

3. The Selection Process

3.1. MULTIPLE-HURDLE STRATEGY - An approach to selection involving a series of successive steps or hurdles. Only candidates clearing the hurdle are permitted to move on to the next step

3.2. Number of sources of info, number of steps depends on organization

3.3. Design preparation

3.3.1. Develop selection critera

3.3.2. Specify musts & wants & weight the wants MUST CRITERIA - Requirements that are absolutely essential for the job, include a measurable standard of acceptability, or are absolute & can be screened initially on paper WANT CRITERIA - Those criteria that represent qualifications that cannot be screened on paper or are not readily measurable, as well as those that are highly desirable but not critical

3.3.3. Develop an evaluation form

3.3.4. Develop interview questions (for all candidates) Questions for each KSA to be assessed

3.3.5. Develop candidate-specific questions Open-ended

4. Step 1: Preliminary Applicant Screening

4.1. Initial screening is performed by HR department

4.2. Application forms & resumes are reviewed

4.3. Candidates not meeting selection criteria are eliminated

4.4. Remaining candidates matching the job specifications are given further consideration

4.5. Use of technology increasingly popular

5. Step 2: Selection Testing

5.1. Process

5.1.1. Screening device used by approximately 2/3 Canadian organizations

5.1.2. Assesses specific job-related skills, general intelligence, personality characteristics, mental abilities, interests, preferences

5.1.3. Remaining candidates Efficient, standardized methods for screening large numbers of applicants

5.1.4. Must be reliable & valid VALIDITY - The accuracy w/ which a predictor measures what it is intended to measure DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY - Confirmation that the selection tool accurately predicts the performance of all possible employee subgroups, including white males, women, visible minorities, persons w/ disabilities & Aboriginal people CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY - The extent to which a selection tool predicts or significantly correlates w/ important elements of work behaviour CONTENT VALIDITY - The extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge & skills needed to perform the job CONSTRUCT VALIDITY - The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait deemed necessary to perform the job successfully RELIABILITY - The degree to which interviews, tests & other selection procedures yield comparable data over time, in other words, the degree of dependability, consistency, or stability of the measures used

5.2. Tests of cognitive abilities

5.2.1. INTELLIGENCE (IQ) TESTS _ Tests that measure general intellectual abilities, such as verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, memory, numerical ability, speed of perception, spatial visualization & word fluency Used since end of WWI Derived score - above or below "average" Intelligence = strongest predictor of job performance

5.2.2. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI) TESTS - Tests that measure a person's ability to monitor his or her own emotions & the emotions of others & to use that knowledge to guide thoughts & actions Debate on how important this is in workplace

5.2.3. Specific cognitive abilities APTITUDE TESTS - Tests that measure an individual's aptitude or potential to perform a job, provided he or she is given proper training

5.3. Tests of motor & physical abilities

5.3.1. Functional abilities evaluations (FAE) - Measures whole series of physical abilities Firefighter, police officer type abilities Careful w/ human rights

5.4. Measuring Personality & Interests

5.4.1. PERSONALITY TESTS - Instruments used to measure basic aspects of personality, such as introversion, stability, motivation, neurotic tendency, self-confidence, self-sufficiency & sociability Projective "Big Five" personality dimensions Extroversion Emotional stability Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to experience

5.4.2. INTEREST INVENTORIES - Tests that compare a candidate's interests w/ those of people in various occupations Career planning Selection

5.4.3. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS - Tests used to measure knowledge or proficiency acquired through education, training, or expeirnece A measure of what they've learned

5.4.4. Work sampling List frequency of performance & relative importance of each task Validated by determining relationship b/w scores on work samples & actual performance on job

5.4.5. MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT CENTRE - A comprehensive, systematic procedure used to assess candidates' management potential that uses a combination of realistic exercises, management games, objective testing, presentations & interviews Takes place within span of few days Examples of activities 1. In-basket exercise 2. Leaderless group discussion 3. Management games 4. Individual presentations 5. Objective tests 6. Interview

5.4.6. SITUATIONAL TESTING - Tests in which candidates are presented w/ hypothetical situations representative of the job for which they are applying & are evaluated on their responses Several assessment centre exercises are situational tests Easier & less expensive than other tools Provide realistic job preview

5.4.7. MICRO-ASSESSMENTS - A series of verbal, paper-based, or computer-based questions & exercises that a candidate is required to complete, covering the range of activities required on the job for which he or she is applying Technical exercises, work-related problems

5.4.8. Physical examination Only permitted after written offer of employment Reasons for inclusin in the selection process To determine qualification of physical requirements & if not, to document accommodation requirements To establish a record & baseline of health for future insurance or compensation claims To reduce absenteeism & accidents by identifying any health issues that need to be addressed

5.4.9. Substance abuse testing In Canada, employers are not permitted to screen candidates for substance abuse Substance addiction is considered a disability which cannot be discriminated against during the selection process Elsewhere, pre-employment substance abuse testing may be used to avoid hiring employees who would pose unnecessary risks to perform below expectations

5.4.10. Polygraph testing Widely rejected in most jurisdictions Unable to produce valid & reliable results Validated tests of honesty or integrity are more useful

6. Step 3: The Selection Interview

6.1. SELECTION INTERVIEW - A procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants' oral responses to oral inquiries

6.2. Interviewer objectives

6.2.1. Assess qualifications

6.2.2. Observe behaviour

6.2.3. Predict future performance

6.2.4. Communicate info about job, promote organization

6.2.5. Determine how well applicant would fit in

6.3. Applicant objectives

6.3.1. Present positive image

6.3.2. Sell their skills & attributes

6.3.3. Gather info about job & organization

6.4. Types of interviews

6.4.1. Structure UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW - An unstructured, conversational-style interview. The interview pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions. STRUCTURAL INTERVIEW - An interview following a set sequence of questions MIXED (SEMI-STRUCTURED) INTERVIEW - An interview format that combines the structures & unstructured techniques

6.4.2. Content SITUATIONAL INTERVIEW - A series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation BEHAVIOURAL INTERVIEW or BEHAVIOUR DESCRIPTION INTERVIEW (BDI) - A series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-related behaviours

6.4.3. Administration One-on-one PANEL INTERVIEW - An interview in which a group of interviewers questions the applicant Sequentially All at once Face-to-face Technology aided

6.5. Common interviewing mistakes

6.5.1. Poor planning

6.5.2. Snap judgements

6.5.3. Negative emphasis

6.5.4. HALO EFFECT - A positive initial impression that distorts an interviewer's rating of a candidate b/c subsequent info is judged w/ a positive bias

6.5.5. Poor knowledge of job

6.5.6. CONTRAST (CANDIDATE-ORDER) ERROR - An error of judgement on the part of the interviewer because of interviewing one or more very good or very good candidates just before the interview in question

6.5.7. Influence of nonverbal behaviour

6.5.8. Leading

6.5.9. Too much/too little talking

6.5.10. Similar-to-me bias

6.6. Designing an effective interview

6.6.1. Combine several formats for maximum advantage

6.6.2. Keep common mistakes in mind

6.7. Conducting an effective interview

6.7.1. Planning the interview Follow procedure Required when assessing disabled candidates

6.7.2. Establishing rapport Find out as much as possible Be nice b/c hard when they are nervous

6.7.3. Asking questions Follow order, listen carefully Taking notes increases validity 1. Reduces likelihood of forgetting job-relevant info & reconstructing w/ biases & stereotypes 2. Reduced likelihood of snap judgements & helps prevent halo effect, negative emphasis, candidate-order errors 3. Ensures candidates assessed on same criteria

6.7.4. Closing the interview Answer questions Next steps & timeline to follow

6.7.5. Evaluating the candidate Interview rated immediately Do not share evaluations

7. Step 4: Background Investigation/Reference Checking

7.1. Information to be verified

7.1.1. Includes Criminal record check Verification of educational qualifications Verification of previous employment Performance-related references from past supervisors Credit check may also be included

7.2. Obtaining written permission

7.2.1. Legal protection

7.2.2. Info in public domain okay

7.3. Providing references

7.3.1. Qualified privilege

7.4. Considerations

7.4.1. Obtaining written permission

7.4.2. Providing references

7.4.3. Qualified privilege

7.4.4. Negligent misrepresentation

8. Step 5: Supervisory interview & realistic job preview

8.1. The supervisor

8.1.1. Is best qualified to assess job knowledge/skills

8.1.2. Can answer job-specific questions

8.1.3. Must feel comfortable w/ new hire

8.1.4. Can assess fit w/ current team members

8.2. REALISTIC JOB PREVIEW (RJP) - A strategy used to provide applicants w/ realistic information - both positive & negative - about the job demands, the organization's expectations & the work environment

9. Step 6: Hiring Decision & Candidate Notification

9.1. STATISTICAL STRATEGY - A more objective technique used to determine whom the job should be offered to; involved identifying the most valid predictors & weighting them through statistical methods ex. multiple regression

9.2. Compile info from all techniques used

9.3. Evaluate info about each candidate

9.4. Immediate supervisor usually makes final hiring decision

9.5. Make offer that specifies terms & conditions of employment

9.6. Give candidates time to think about the offer

9.7. Notify all finalists who were not selected

10. Acquiring Employees & the Law

10.1. Must comply w/ human rights legislation

10.1.1. Info collected on prohibited ground requires employer's burden of proof

10.1.2. Collection of prohibited ground info requires employer's burden of proof

10.2. Considerations

10.2.1. Do not ask questions that would violate human rights legislation

10.2.2. Treat all candidates in the same manner

10.2.3. Do not cut short an interview based on preconceived notions

10.2.4. Focus on the job description & job specification when gathering info from applicants