Human abilities

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Human abilities により Mind Map: Human abilities

1. Cognitive factor

1.1. Verbal

1.1.1. Oral comprehension Ability to understand spoken language words and sentences

1.1.2. Written comprehension Ability to understand written sentences and paragraphs

1.1.3. Oral expression Ability to use language words and sentences in speaking so others will understand

1.1.4. Written expression Ability to use language words or sentences in writing so others will understand

1.2. Idea generation and reasoning

1.2.1. Fluency of ideas Ability to produce a number of ideas about a given topic

1.2.2. Originality Ability to produce unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation. It is the ability to invent creative solutions to problems or to develop new procedures to situations in which standard operating procedures do not apply

1.2.3. Problem sensitivity Ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It includes being able to identify the whole problem as well as the elements of the problem

1.2.4. Deductive reasoning Ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense

1.2.5. Inductive reasoning Ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions

1.2.6. Information gathering Ability to follow correctly a rule or set of rules to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The rule or sets of rules used must be given. The things or actions to be put in order can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations

1.2.7. Category flexibility Ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group a set of things in a different way. Each different group must contain at least two things from the original set of things

1.3. Memory

1.3.1. Memorisation Ability to remember information, such as words, numbers, pictures and procedures. Pieces of information can be remembered by themselves or with other pieces of information

1.3.2. Speed of closure Involves the degree to which different pieces of information can be combined and organised into one meaningful pattern quickly. It is not known beforehand what the pattern will be. The material may be visual or auditory

1.3.3. Flexibility of closure Ability to identify or detect a known pattern (such as a figure, word or object) that is hidden in other material. The task is to pick out the disguised pattern

1.3.4. Perceptual speed Involves the degree to which one can compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures or patterns, quickly and accurately. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object

1.4. Focus

1.4.1. Visualisation Ability to imagine how something will look when it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. It requires the forming of mental images of how patterns or objects would look after certain changes, such as unfolding or rotation. One has to predict how an object, set of objects or pattern will appear after the changes are carried out

1.4.2. Time sharing Ability to shift back and forth between two or more sources of information

1.4.3. Selective attention Ability to concentrate on a task one is doing. This ability involves concentrating while performing a boring task and not being distracted

1.5. Quantitative

1.5.1. Mathematical reasoning Ability to understand and organise a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem. It encompasses reasoning through mathematical problems to determine appropriate operations that can be performed to solve problems. It also includes the understanding or structuring of mathematical problems. The actual manipulation of numbers is not included in this ability

1.5.2. Number facility Involves the degree to which adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing can be done quickly and correctly. These can be steps in other operations, such as finding percentages and taking square roots

2. Physical factor

2.1. Flexibility, balance and coordination

2.1.1. Extent flexibility Ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms or legs

2.1.2. Dynamic flexibility Ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms or legs, both quickly and repeatedly

2.1.3. Gross body coordination Ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs and torso together in activities in which the whole body is in motion

2.1.4. Gross body equilibrium Ability to keep or regain one's body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position. This ability includes maintaining one's balance when changing direction while moving or standing motionlessly

2.2. Stamina

2.2.1. Stamina Ability of the lungs and circulatory systems of the body to perform efficiently over long time periods. This is the ability to exert oneself physically without getting out of breath

2.3. Physical strength

2.3.1. Static strength Ability to use muscle force in order to lift, push, pull or carry objects. It is the maximum force that one can exert for a brief period of time

2.3.2. Explosive strength Ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself or an object. It requires gathering energy for bursts of muscle effort over a very short time period

2.3.3. Dynamic strength Ability of the muscles to exert force repeatedly or continuously over a long time period. This is the ability to support, hold up or move the body's own weight and/or objects repeatedly over time. It represents muscular endurance and emphasises the resistance of the muscles to fatigue

2.3.4. Trunk strength Involves the degree to which ones' stomach and lower back muscles can support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time. The ability involves the degree to which these trunk muscles do not fatigue when they are put under such repeated or continuous strain

3. Psychomotor factor

3.1. Control Movement

3.1.1. Control precision Ability to move controls of a machine or vehicle. This involves the degree to which these controls can be moved quickly and repeatedly to exact positions

3.1.2. Multi-limb coordination Ability to coordinate movement of two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs or one leg and one arm), such as in moving equipment controls. Two or more limbs are in motion while the individual is sitting, standing or lying down

3.1.3. Response orientation Ability to choose between two or more movements quickly and accurately when two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures) are given. The ability is concerned with the speed with which the right response can be started with the hand, foot or other parts of the body

3.1.4. Rate control Ability to adjust an equipment control in response to changes in the speed and/or directions of a continuously moving object or scene. The ability involves timing these adjustments in anticipating these changes. This ability does not extend to situations in which both the speed and direction of the object are perfectly predictable

3.2. Reaction time and speed

3.2.1. Reaction time Ability to give one fast response to one signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears. This ability is concerned with the speed with which the movement can be started with the hand, foot or other parts of the body

3.2.2. Wrist-finger speed Ability to make fast, simple repeated movements of the fingers, hands and wrists. It involves little, if any, accuracy or eye-hand coordination

3.2.3. Speed of Limb movement Involves the speed with which a single movement of the arms or legs can be made. This ability does not include accuracy, careful control or coordination of movement

3.3. Fine manipulative ability

3.3.1. Arm-hand steadiness Ability to keep the hand or arm steady. It includes steadiness while making an arm movement as well as hodling the arm and hand in one position. This ability does not involve strength or speed

3.3.2. Manual dexterity Ability to make skillful coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, place, move or assemble objects, such as hand tools or blocks. This abilitiy involves the degree to which these arm-hand movements can be carried out quickly. It does not involve moving machine or equipment controls, such as levers

3.3.3. Finger dexterity Ability to make skillful coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands and to grasp, place or move small objects. This ability involves the degree to which these finger movements can be carried out quickly

4. Sensory factor

4.1. Auditory and speech ability

4.1.1. Hearing sensitivity Ability to detect and to discriminate among sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and/or loudness

4.1.2. Auditory attention Ability to focus on a single source of auditory information in the presence of other distracting and irrelevant auditory stimuli

4.1.3. Sound localisation Ability to identify the direction from which an auditory stimulus originated relative to the observer

4.1.4. Speech recognition Ability to learn and understand the speech of another person

4.1.5. Speech clarity Ability to communicate orally in a clear fashion understandable to the listener

4.2. Visual ability

4.2.1. Near vision Capacity to see close environmental surroundings

4.2.2. Far vision Capacity to see distant environmental surroundings

4.2.3. Visual colour discrimination Capacity to match or discriminate between colours. This capacity also includes detecting differences in colour purity (saturation) and brightness (brilliance)

4.2.4. Night vision Ability to see under low light conditions

4.2.5. Peripheral vision Ability to perceive objects or movements towards the edges of the visual field

4.2.6. Depth perception Ability to distinguish which of several objects is more distant from or nearer to the observer or to judge the distance of an object from the observer

4.2.7. Glare sensitivity Ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright ambient lighting