Vernacular Architecture

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Vernacular Architecture により Mind Map: Vernacular Architecture

1. Definition

1.1. Everyday environment that people live in

1.2. Evolution of society responding to social and environmental constrains

1.3. Specific to region / With local character

1.4. Share knowledge from generations to generations

1.5. mostly self-built by owners / users (normal people)

1.5.1. can be either top-down or bottom-up

1.6. Communicate behaviour and identity of occupants to the world

2. High Diversity by

2.1. Climate

2.1.1. Climatic Belt in Asia

2.1.1.1. Regions

2.1.1.1.1. Arctic and Subartic

2.1.1.1.2. Continental Climate

2.1.1.1.3. Desert

2.1.1.1.4. Montane

2.1.1.1.5. Maritime

2.1.1.1.6. Sub-tropical Climate

2.1.1.1.7. Monsoon

2.1.1.1.8. Tropical

2.1.1.2. Factor

2.1.1.2.1. Geographical Latitude

2.1.1.2.2. Altitude

2.1.1.2.3. Orientation of slope

2.2. Geography

2.3. Religion

2.4. Material and Construction

2.4.1. Building Materials

2.4.1.1. Types

2.4.1.1.1. Natural

2.4.1.1.2. Manufactured products

2.4.1.2. Incorporation of new materials

2.4.1.2.1. reveals the ability of vernacular architecture to adapt the needs of people

2.4.1.2.2. not necessarily destroying the cultural value or significance of vernacular architecture

2.4.1.2.3. Elevates the status of the uses family

2.4.1.3. People use the most available material to build vernacular architecture, unlike the monument

2.4.1.4. Preparation

2.4.1.4.1. praying to spirits

2.4.1.4.2. drying

2.4.1.4.3. weather / seasons

2.4.1.4.4. transportation

2.4.1.4.5. polish

2.4.2. Building methods, structural system and Workmanship

2.4.2.1. Vernacular architecture example

2.4.2.1.1. Cave Dwellings

2.4.2.1.2. Mud towers

2.4.2.1.3. Japanese Thatched roof

2.4.2.2. Transmission of building methods  from generation to generation

2.4.2.2.1. Example

2.4.2.3. Threats facing

2.4.2.3.1. over exploitation

2.4.2.3.2. The lack of retention of traditional tool and training of new generation

2.4.2.4. Assembly process

2.4.2.4.1. primary structure

2.4.2.4.2. secondary elements

2.4.2.4.3. Additions

2.4.3. Building rituals

2.4.3.1. definition

2.4.3.1.1. the conversion of spiritual body in physical form from harvesting materials, selection of auspicious day, start of construction, construction process

2.4.3.2. example

2.4.3.2.1. Loas

2.4.3.2.2. Hong Kong

2.4.3.2.3. Chinese

2.4.4. Building dimensions

2.4.4.1. congruent with cosmos and not against nature

2.4.4.1.1. to get blessings and fortune from spirits

2.4.4.2. Use human body as units

2.4.4.2.1. example

2.4.4.2.2. Reveal the design of vernacular architecture is strongly relate to human scale

2.5. Culture

2.5.1. Level of meaning

2.5.1.1. Low-level meaning

2.5.1.1.1. social situation

2.5.1.1.2. expected behaviour

2.5.1.1.3. accessibility

2.5.1.1.4. setting

2.5.1.1.5. way-finding

2.5.1.2. Middle-level meaning

2.5.1.2.1. identity

2.5.1.2.2. status

2.5.1.2.3. wealth

2.5.1.2.4. power

2.5.1.2.5. behaviour

2.5.1.3. High -level meaning

2.5.1.3.1. sacred

2.5.1.3.2. cosmologies

2.5.1.3.3. world-views

2.5.1.3.4. philosophy

2.5.2. Study Approaches

2.5.2.1. Specific techniques or methods

2.5.2.2. Linguistic or semiotic model

2.5.2.3. Symbolic meaning

2.5.2.4. Non-verbal communication in psychology or ethology

2.5.2.4.1. Observation in features

3. Threats

3.1. Economical Development

3.1.1. Rapid Urbanisation

3.1.2. Uncontrolled population growth

3.1.3. Urban Renewal

3.2. Culture

3.2.1. The influence brought by foreign culture

3.2.1.1. Colonisation

3.2.1.1.1. affecting the behaviour of original locals

3.2.1.1.2. Maybe a catalyst of the development of vernacular architecture as new materials,  way of living and world view to the area

3.3. Homogenization

3.3.1. Globalization

3.4. Infrastructural program

3.5. Political Strategy

3.6. Natural disaster

3.7. Wars and conflicts

4. Vernacular Landscape

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. Visible features of area of land

4.1.2. Formed by human activities and culture

4.2. Example

4.2.1. Include family garden, open street, terraced rice fields, fish pond

4.2.2. Usually the change of private space lead to the transformation of public space

4.3. Sense of place

4.3.1. Definition

4.3.1.1. special memory or personal feeling towards scape

4.3.1.2. atmosphere of space which lead to the return of time

4.4. Evolution

4.4.1. Site boundaries

4.4.2. removal or construction of building

4.4.3. scale of building

4.4.4. addition or subtraction of layers of time and cultural activity

5. Types of Vernacular Architecture

5.1. Rural Vernacular

5.1.1. types

5.1.1.1. temporary

5.1.1.1.1. nomadic tent

5.1.1.1.2. yurk

5.1.1.2. permenant

5.1.1.2.1. house

5.1.1.2.2. barn

5.1.1.2.3. storage building

5.1.1.2.4. building for process crops

5.1.1.2.5. cave dwelling

5.1.2. Impact

5.1.2.1. help forming our own identity through personal experience on nature

5.1.3. Perspective to examine

5.1.3.1. forming of community or village(settlement)

5.1.3.1.1. The form of settlement is related to the setting, such as production to make a living.

5.1.3.1.2. The socio-economic factor also contributes. The hierarchical structure affects how houses are organised and types of vernacular architecture

5.1.3.2. setting (social/ economical/ cultural activities)

5.1.3.2.1. Example

5.1.3.2.2. Definition

5.1.3.3. spiritual or cosmic realms

5.1.3.3.1. For survival or good harvest, people tend to connect to natural force by worship and offering.

5.1.3.3.2. Example

5.1.3.4. not necessarily "un-selfconcious process" (Timeless way of building)

5.1.3.4.1. Definition of un-selfconcious

5.1.3.4.2. Definition of "self-concious"

5.1.3.4.3. Benefit

5.2. Urban Vernacular

5.2.1. Creating Public Cultures in city

5.2.1.1. Relationship between culture, landscape and image

5.2.1.1.1. Urban Vernacular developed under the norm that selling of the city image becomes a way to stimulate the economic growth under tourism.

5.2.1.1.2. The city links culture and economy tightly.

5.2.1.1.3. Urban Vernacular developed under the norm that selling of the city image becomes a way to stimulate the economic growth under tourism.

5.2.1.1.4. City's landscape becomes a backdrop for the newer technology and display.

5.2.1.2. Impact

5.2.1.2.1. Incorporating new images from other culture or group of people can integrate new social or ethnic groups in the society, forming new identity.

5.2.1.2.2. Definition of city vs occupant of the city

5.2.1.3. Framing of Public space

5.2.1.3.1. Public Park

5.2.1.3.2. Development

5.2.2. Driven factors

5.2.2.1. Industralisation

5.2.2.1.1. Attract people from rural to seek new opportunities

5.2.2.1.2. lead by colonialism

5.2.2.2. urbanisation

5.2.2.2.1. individual taking part in the construction activities

5.2.2.3. Creating new interactions and communications with new people

5.2.2.4. Decision to seek better living standard (such as education and make a living)

5.2.3. Impact / Changes

5.2.3.1. enforcement of laws and building codes

5.2.3.1.1. less variations in terms of building outlook

5.2.3.1.2. building materials are not local

5.2.3.1.3. Uprise of professions in design and construction

5.2.4. Characters

5.2.4.1. Building with hybrid functions (religious, habitation and production) due to multi-purpose to serve daily lifes

5.2.4.2. Street, public squares

5.2.4.2.1. extension of house (living space)

5.2.4.3. Culturally connected to rural vernacular as the urban vernacular is housing the people coming from villages and they bring their cultural values to the city

5.2.4.4. Physically connected? Any border to separate?

5.2.4.4.1. For mature city, the connection disappear

5.2.4.4.2. Yet, city is growing and expanding. For once, there is no clear boundary between the rural and urban

5.2.5. Examples

5.2.5.1. Japanese Townhouse

5.2.5.1.1. Front part is shop

5.2.5.1.2. with side passage

5.2.5.2. South Asian Bungalow House

5.2.5.2.1. Urban or suburban detached house

5.2.5.2.2. single or one and a half storeys

5.2.5.2.3. roof-thatch

5.2.5.2.4. open -floor plan

5.2.5.2.5. high ceiling

5.2.5.2.6. deep veranda

5.2.5.2.7. brick structure, white plastering

5.2.5.2.8. pitched roof

5.2.5.3. Asian Shop House

5.2.5.3.1. Location

5.2.5.3.2. combination of trading and dwelling

5.2.5.3.3. family as a economy entity

5.2.5.3.4. two-four storeys

5.2.5.3.5. long and narrow arrangement

5.2.5.3.6. Developed by developers a century ago

5.2.5.4. Urban Houses, Nepal

5.2.5.4.1. 3 storeys

5.2.5.4.2. stone/mud/timber

5.2.5.4.3. keeping livestocks at ground floor

5.2.6. Definition

5.2.6.1. Represent the most likely building to build as a particular place at a particular time even they are built by developers but not the house owners

5.2.6.2. Occupy by ordinary people

5.3. Informal Settlement

5.3.1. Characters

5.3.1.1. Location

5.3.1.1.1. Outskirts of cities

5.3.1.1.2. undesirable place in city

5.3.1.1.3. unbuilt area which belong to private corporations or goverment

5.3.1.2. Contains particular building method with living  habits brought from rural

5.3.1.3. By-product of economic growth, industrialisation and urbanisation

5.3.1.4. People coming from the same village or working on the same trade would live together as one settlement

5.3.1.5. Scale?

5.3.1.5.1. Cluster

5.3.1.5.2. Street Level

5.3.2. Threats

5.3.2.1. Clearance by government or private developers

5.3.2.2. public condemnation of hygiene and sanitation reasons

5.3.2.2.1. leakage of roof under heavy rain

5.3.2.2.2. lack of running water and drainage

5.3.2.2.3. illegal supply of electricity

5.3.2.3. Risk of fire

5.3.2.4. hinder children's study

5.3.3. Driven factors

5.3.3.1. unprecedented economic growth

5.3.3.2. accelerated expansion of urban population

5.3.3.2.1. a natural process of migration from rural to city where families house themselves close to work or potential employment

5.3.4. Improvement

5.3.4.1. Method

5.3.4.1.1. NGO provides services for water, drainage, power supply, housing stock, loans and register ownership

5.3.4.2. Issues to attack

5.3.4.2.1. As people are not owning the land, they are facing eviction or deconstruction

5.3.4.2.2. As there is no property equity, there is not access to credit.

5.3.4.3. Main direction

5.3.4.3.1. to preserve their home and livelihood

5.3.4.3.2. gradual improvement without deconstruction and reconstruction

5.3.4.4. community participation and empowerment

5.3.4.5. To what extend does the government should intervene?

5.3.5. Vernacular Values

5.3.5.1. Support or contain daily activities

5.3.5.2. built with commonly understood pattern and materials

5.3.5.2.1. materials that are reused or left-over

5.3.5.2.2. light and temporary

5.3.5.3. Built in piecemeal fashion ( a evolution process that the village is always at an incomplete stage)

5.3.5.3.1. a process starting from temporary to permanent

5.3.5.4. Built with complex culture of material supply and expertise

5.3.5.4.1. involve craftsmen and builders

5.3.5.4.2. material supply within the settlement

5.3.6. Shadow economy

5.3.6.1. Place where production occurs

5.3.6.1.1. house

5.3.6.1.2. workshops

5.3.7. Example

5.3.7.1. Calais Jungle

5.3.7.1.1. Eviction and resettle the residents in other pats of France

6. Conservation of Built Vernacular

6.1. Conservation Principle

6.1.1. Recognising the inevitable changes and future development

6.1.2. Respecting the cultural value

6.1.2.1. Tangible attributes

6.1.2.1.1. Physical fabric or content of a place

6.1.2.1.2. Not removing original fabric or materials (a reversible process)

6.1.2.2. intangible attributes

6.1.2.2.1. association with people

6.1.3. Scale of conservation in groups of buildings or region

6.1.4. Protection integrating with landscape

6.1.5. Realising and sustaining the activities associated with the architecture

6.1.6. No replication of  new building and materials

6.2. Issues to be addressed

6.2.1. How to make them sustainable in a mordenized context

6.2.1.1. Definition of sustainability

6.2.1.1.1. Not giving up the ability of future generations to meet their needs while satisfying the needs of the present generation

6.2.1.2. Prospects

6.2.1.2.1. adapting modern standard of comfort

6.3. Factors behind the lack of conservation of vernacular architecture

6.3.1. Vernacular architecture is more about an evolution process which is less permenant

6.3.2. Private ownership of the building

6.3.2.1. When property price goes up, the owner has the higher tendency to sell it rather than preserving it for his own benefit

6.3.3. Insufficient or inaccurate research / pass down on story of the place

6.4. Definition of architecture conservation

6.4.1. Economic life of a building or cluster is extended

6.4.2. Retaining the cultural significance

6.4.2.1. not only keep the physical setting but also the activities and users that keep the liveliness of the building

6.4.2.2. both tangible and intangible values

6.4.3. a continuous process

6.4.4. a forward-looking activity

6.5. Factors require for successful conservation

6.5.1. Awareness of own local people of their place and community that maintaining the livelihood is more important than other issues, such as education

6.5.2. Recognition of values (tangible or intangible)

6.5.2.1. Types of vaule

6.5.2.1.1. Archtectural

6.5.2.1.2. Scientific

6.5.2.1.3. Sociocultural Value

6.5.2.1.4. Economic Value

6.5.2.2. conservation values (shared values) are those shared and cherished by the whole society

6.5.2.3. defined by every generation

6.6. Methods adopted

6.6.1. preservation

6.6.1.1. Preservation is more about keeping it save without any creative intervention. It is a passive and negative process which frozen in time.

6.6.2. gentrification

6.6.2.1. Upgrading the neighbourhood

6.6.2.2. can be a partial process

6.6.3. adaptation

6.6.3.1. turning previously residential buildings into commercial activities

6.6.3.1.1. Example

6.6.3.2. adapting to the present land regulation

7. Future of Asia's Vernacular Architecture

7.1. What is the Asian tradition?

7.1.1. Tradition vs modern

7.1.1.1. Tradition is only notices and determined with the intervention of modern

7.1.1.1.1. Usually when an action has been passed down for three generations, people start to think about it and bring new intervention on it. The act soon becomes tradition

7.1.1.2. utilise the pass to serve the present

7.1.1.3. With the intervention brought by the modern society, the cultural landscape would be replaced by multi-layers of activities at different times. It's not  fragmentation but more about building up layers that reflects different important moments.

7.1.1.4. In simple words, you need something new to define what is old. Timeline is the way to define tradition and modernity

7.1.1.5. "modern vernacular"?

7.1.1.5.1. modern: rationale

7.1.1.5.2. tradition: ?

7.1.2. Tradition as a product

7.1.2.1. vernacular architecture as a building

7.1.3. tradition as a process

7.1.3.1. the building process and pass down of knowledge

7.1.3.1.1. require great labour to reinterpret

7.1.3.1.2. allow evolution to adapt and modify according to the needs of the next generation

7.1.4. tradition can be classified into tangible and intangible values. The tangibles might be replaced by other forms or exist in another way, the core values (the intangibles) still remain usually.

7.2. How is Asian vernacular architecture able to survive in the modern world?

7.2.1. Incorporation of Asian tradition into the modern architecture in a subtle way to express cultural and social identity

7.2.1.1. by understanding of the pass well, the reasons behind those actions and bring in judgement

7.2.1.1.1. Examples

7.2.2. Bring in tourism

7.2.2.1. unstoppable juggernaut?

7.2.2.2. tourists seek authenticity and truth in times and places away from his/her own everyday life

7.2.2.2.1. the gaze transforms the material reality of the ·built environment into a cultural imaginary

7.2.2.2.2. First World nations are those consuming the heritage and cultural of the Third World nations. They determine those heritages as "universal heritages" even people living in the Third World countries don't recognise it.

7.2.2.2.3. primary users of vernacular turns from local to the visitors from world-wide

7.2.2.3. Construction Typology of manufactured heritage site

7.2.2.3.1. using history to create a dream landscape

7.2.2.3.2. Cultural objectification

7.2.2.3.3. Exploitation of heritage for commercial purpose

7.2.2.4. Impact

7.2.2.4.1. Turn culture as saleable object

7.2.2.4.2. lose of indigenous control

7.2.2.4.3. separation of local from the vernacular for protection or maintenance of image presented

7.2.3. Symbolise national identity

7.2.3.1. complicated by the global economic patterns of production and exchange

7.2.3.1.1. globalization

7.2.3.1.2. capitalism which depends on the value of difference

7.2.4. Vernacular environment is also a way of repetition to create a landscape with the same outlook of building blocks. So does homogenous refer to repetition?  Is that a good way to develop our living space?