Chapter 4 : Images

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Chapter 4 : Images により Mind Map: Chapter 4 : Images

1. Before commencing the creation of images in multimedia, you should :

1.1. i) Plan your approach

1.2. ii) Organize the available tools

1.3. iii) Configure computer workspace

2. Making still images

2.1. may be the most important element of a multimedia project

2.2. generate in the two ways :

2.2.1. i) Bitmaps (raster)

2.2.2. ii) Vector-drawn graphic

2.3. capturing and editing images

2.4. image editing program enable the user to :

2.4.1. i) enahnce and make composite images

2.4.2. ii) alter and distort images

2.4.3. iii) add and delete elements

2.4.4. iv) Morph (allow user to smoothly blend two images so that one image seems to melt into the next

3. Bitmaps

3.1. is derived from the word "bit", which means the simplest element in digital world, an electronic digit that is either "on or off", "black or white", "true or flase"

3.2. is use combination block of pixels to represent an image

3.3. each pixel is assigned a specific location and color value

4. Vector-drawn graphic

4.1. i) Application of vector-drawn object

4.1.1. CAD programs needed by architects and engineer

4.1.2. graphic artists designing for the point media

4.1.3. 3D animation program - changes of position, rotation and shading the light

4.1.4. application requiring drawing of graphic shapes

4.2. ii) How vector-drawn images work

4.2.1. a vector is a line that described by the location of its two endpoint

4.2.2. use of Cartesian coordinates

4.3. iii) Vector-drawn images vs bitmaps

4.3.1. vector use less memory space and have a smaller file size as compared to bitmaps

4.3.2. vector object are easily scalable without loss of resolution or image quality

4.3.3. vector image cannot be used for photorealistic images

4.3.4. vector images require a plug-in for web-based display

4.3.5. bitmaps are not easily scalable and resizable

4.3.6. bitmaps can be converted into vector images using autotracing

5. Bitmap source

5.1. using camera

5.2. from a photo or other artwork using a scanner to digitize the image

5.3. make a bitmap from scrach with apaint or drawing program

5.4. grab a bitmap from a active computer screen with a screen capture program, then paste it into a paint program or your application

5.5. get from supplier of clip arts and from photo-graph supplier

5.6. libraries of clip art are available online and images are downloadable (usually for a fee)

5.7. download from an image from website - be aware of who owns the copyright to the image you wish to use and what is required to reproduced the image legally

5.8. Legal rights protecting use of images from clip art galleries fall into three basic groupings :

5.8.1. i) Public domain images

5.8.2. ii) Royalty-free images

5.8.3. iii) Right-managed images

6. 3D drawing and rendering

6.1. i) 3D animation tools

6.1.1. example : Daz3D, Form*Z, NewTek's Lightwave, Autodesk Maya, Trimble's SketchUp

6.2. ii)Features of a 3D application

6.2.1. Modeling

6.2.2. Extrusion

6.2.3. Lathing

6.3. iii) Panoramas

6.3.1. Rendering

6.4. Rendering

6.4.1. use of intrincate alogorithms to apply user-specified effects

6.4.2. take many hours for a single image

7. Understanding natural light and color

7.1. i) Additive color

7.1.1. example : Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color

7.2. ii) Subtractive color

7.2.1. example : Cyan, Magenta, Yellow (CMY)

7.3. iii) Color models

7.3.1. RGB model

7.3.2. HSB and HSL models

7.3.3. other models

8. Color palettes

8.1. are mathematical tables that define the color of pixels displayed on the screen

8.2. are called "color lookup tables" or CLUTs, on the Macintosh

8.3. common palettes are 1-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 24-bit deep

9. Dithering

9.1. is a process whereby the color value of each pixel is changed to the closest matching color value in the target palettes

9.2. done using mathematical algorithms

10. Image File Types Used in Multimedia

10.1. i) Macintosh

10.1.1. example : PICT

10.2. ii) Windows formats

10.2.1. example : DIB (also known as BMP)

10.3. iii) Cross-platform formats

10.3.1. example : JPEG, GIF, PNG