My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education により Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative perspective

1.1.1. William Graham Sumner social evolution enables strongest to survive

1.1.2. free market Ronald Reagan campaigned this

1.1.3. support return to basics

1.2. Liberal perspective

1.2.1. Franklin D. Roosevelt had this view

1.2.2. balancing productivity with needs

1.2.3. quality with equality

1.3. radical perspective

1.3.1. democratic socialism

1.3.2. capitalist system is central to problems

1.3.3. greater democratization in schools

1.4. Purposes of schools

1.4.1. intellectual cognitive skills, such as reading, writing, mathematics literature, history, sciences students acquire higher-order thinking skills

1.4.2. political patriotism prepare politically active citizens teach basic law of society

1.4.3. social solve social problems assure social cohesion socialization

1.4.4. economic prepare students for divisions of labor

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. colonial era

2.1.1. many ivy league colleges created

2.1.2. Thomas Jefferson free education to all children

2.1.3. male and female educated on aristocratic model

2.2. age of reform-common school

2.2.1. 1820-1860

2.2.2. Readers came into some schools

2.2.3. free public education led by Horace Mann

2.2.4. not everyone like this idea

2.2.5. towards 1860 school beyond elementary was growing in support

2.2.6. more and more girls attending school first female seminary opened

2.2.7. 1833-Oberlin Institute accepted women and African-Americans after- more and more colleges accepting women

2.2.8. 1846-Roberts v. City of Boston-court established separate school for whites and blacks

2.3. late 19th century

2.3.1. large immigrants come from Europe- gap between wealthy and poor grow

2.3.2. compulsory school laws grew and more went to high school than ever before

2.4. 1945-1980 Post-World War II

2.4.1. Progressive experiential education

2.4.2. traditional knowledge-centered education

2.4.3. Civil Rights Movements occurring- affecting blacks attending same schools as whites Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education

2.5. 1980- now

2.5.1. charter schools

2.5.2. standards

2.5.3. Obama's Race to the Top

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functional Theories interdependence Emile Durkheim- invention sociology of education

3.1.2. Conflict theories Karl Marx-founder of conflict school class system makes class struggle inevitable Randall Collins-1971- status group struggle/ status symbols vs. actual achievement

3.1.3. Interactional Theories big picture Basil Bernstein- wholistically

3.2. effects of schooling on individuals

3.2.1. knowledge and attitudes academic programs and policies do make differences in student learning

3.2.2. employment research shows much of education not related to job skills differences seen in male vs. female pay and race also comes into play

3.2.3. education and mobility contest mobility-rise and fall on own merit sponsored mobility- social class

3.3. inside schools

3.3.1. teacher behavior role strain-too much to do expectations play a role in how students will do

3.3.2. peer groups, alienation labels on groups subcultures sort and select

3.4. Education and inequality

3.4.1. inadequate schools wealthy vs. poor minority vs. private schools

3.4.2. tracking placement of students in programs based on abilities seen to be base on race unitentionally

3.4.3. De Facto Segregation most people live in racially segregated neighborhoods

3.4.4. gender men paid more than women girls start out better in elementary with grades, but lower self-esteem in high school than boys

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Philosophy of education helps teachers to :

4.1.1. Clarify what they are doing

4.1.2. Justify why they are doing it

4.2. Idealism

4.2.1. Perennialism

4.2.2. The world is in a constant state of flux and truth is constantly changing

4.2.3. Plato, St. Augustine, Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

4.2.4. search for truth through ideas ideas can change lives

4.2.5. the teacher is to practice reminiscence in which she brings out what is already in the student's mind as she poses questions and invokes discussion of ideas

4.2.6. Although lecturing is a method of instruction, the dialectic approach is mainly used. students discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what they've read to the real world

4.2.7. classics are greatly studied all present problems can be solved by studying the past

4.3. Realism

4.3.1. Essentialism

4.3.2. the world of matter should be studied to develop ideas

4.3.3. Aristotle- a student of Plato- took Plato's idealism and took it farther to realism, that the materials of the world should bring about the ideas syllogism 1. a major premise 2. a minor premise 3. a conclusion

4.3.4. John Locke, Whitehead, Russell

4.3.5. goal is to apply principles of science to solve problems of modern world

4.3.6. teachers should be very knowledgeable in academic disciplines to pass on that knowledge to their students

4.3.7. methods include lecture, question & answer

4.3.8. basic curriculum of science, math, reading, writing, humanities

4.4. Pragmatism

4.4.1. Progressivism

4.4.2. experimental learning is key as well as cooperative learning

4.4.3. John Dewey

4.4.4. students are to be integrated into a democratic society

4.4.5. teacher becomes the facilitator and helps students plan and implement study

4.4.6. methods of instruction include- problem-solving, scientific method, and inquiry method

4.4.7. curriculum is integrated

4.5. Existentialism and Phenomenology

4.5.1. students must create themselves and their own meaning

4.5.2. needs of individuals should be met education liberates the individual from the chaotic world

4.5.3. teachers should consistently be using introspection to help their students be in touch with their worlds so they can act on their choices

4.5.4. learning is intensely personal learning is based on individual learning styles cooperative learning

4.5.5. curriculum is based heavily on humanities

4.6. Neo-Marxism

4.6.1. Social Reconstructionism

4.6.2. Karl Marx

4.6.3. education can change social culture

4.6.4. teachers engage students to think critically of the world and their place in it to make it better

4.6.5. question and answer method of instruction

4.6.6. see curriculum as being socially constructed by those in power and it reflects an objective

4.7. Postmodernist and Critical Theory

4.7.1. differences of contradictory positions are explored to achieve understanding and change

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. public schools

5.1.1. states responsible for school systems

5.1.2. schools are becoming more centralized, decreasing individualization bureaucracy can suppress individualism and initiative

5.1.3. students becoming more diverse

5.2. private schools

5.2.1. families are fiscally contributing

5.3. democratic

5.4. clearly defined political structure

5.4.1. change is difficult because of this

5.5. culture of their own

5.5.1. causes teachers to have to bend to administrators will

5.6. teacher professionalism different from other professions in that they have only one identity to answer to instead of 'clients'

5.7. role switching- can cause 'burn-outs'

5.7.1. teachers have to play so many different roles in one day such as: colleague, friend, facilitator, researcher, administrator, leader, activist, role model to students, parents, and other professionals

5.8. state certifications require teachers to be highly qualified

5.9. U.S. compared to France

5.9.1. France more centralized

5.9.2. France more verbal

5.9.3. in France only 15% graduate from university

5.9.4. France creates an elite group while U.S. all children are equal

5.10. Major Stakeholders in Madison City School District

5.10.1. State Senator: Richard Shelby

5.10.2. House of Representatives District 5: Mo Brooks

5.10.3. State Superintendent: Thomas R. Bice

5.10.4. State school board member district 8: Mary Scott Hunter

5.10.5. Superintendent: Dr. Dee O. Fowler

5.10.6. Local Board Member President: Dr. Terri Johnson

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. History of curriculum

6.1.1. humanist curriculum presents students with the best of what has been thought and written common academic curriculum for all students

6.1.2. social efficiency curriculum since students are so diverse, they should receive different types of schooling pedagogical progressivism wanted to tailor curriculum to help students reach diverse places in society standardized tests came to help place individuals into ability groups

6.1.3. developmentalist curriculum focuses on needs of students rather than society stressed connecting learning to life experiences made an impact on teacher education programs romantic progressivism rather than traditional readers, relates literacy instruction to experiences

6.1.4. social meliorist curriculum contemporary critical curriculum theory creating students that are active social changers in their community and the world

6.2. Politics of Curriculum

6.2.1. Who shapes it and whose cultural knowledge is being valued

6.2.2. appropriate content textbooks

6.2.3. transmission of knowledge is never objective or value neutral

6.3. Sociology of Curriculum

6.3.1. why it is taught

6.3.2. reflects values of society changes in curriculum

6.3.3. schools job to create contributing members of society- curriculum must have their values being taught

6.4. Stratification of curriculum

6.4.1. division of curriculum high school curriculum tracks with different curricula and different abilities ability groups- similar curricula and different abilities

6.5. Effects of Curriculum

6.5.1. schooling does make a substantial impact on cognitive development

6.5.2. curriculum can change values and attitudes

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Social stratification- hierarchy of families that are divided by social variables that sometimes deny access to certain things of value

7.1.1. caste stratification- defined by race or religious worth

7.1.2. estate stratification- social level is defined in the hierarchy of family worth

7.1.3. class stratification- determined by economic achievement of individuals

7.2. Sociologists study the effect of education on social mobility- called the status-attainment process.

7.2.1. This process is not equal and is referred to as a tournament selection class -based on family income is directly correlated with student acheivement children from low-income families more likely to drop out and underachieve number of books in families home directly correlates to a children's academic achievement cost of extended education lends itself to wealthier families race - has direct impact on how much education and achievement minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities or rewards for achievement gender - women do not receive the same extended educational opportunities as men gender gap

7.2.2. there are wide educational gaps in African-American, Hispanic-American, and Women students when compared with white males

7.2.3. Students with special needs - inclusion as much as possible- least restrictive environment minorities are overrepresented in special education placements

7.3. Differences in schools

7.3.1. The Coleman Study 1966- James Coleman (sociologist) researched characteristics of schools and the effect on student achievement result was found that differences between schools was not very important in determining student outcomes raised controversy of what education could then do to close these gaps between race, class, gender, etc. foundation for busing students so that poor students will be with wealthy students to provide 'equal educational opportunities'

7.3.2. Coleman Study Round two 1982 found that private schools scored higher on tests than public schools has to do with private school 'culture' and the push for academics when compared with public school all factors such as race, class, and gender come into play when achievement is assessed. They all overlap each other and are of consequence.

7.4. Found that diplomas and college degrees are more socially acceptable rather than any indication of job competance

8. Educational InEquality

8.1. sociological explanations for unequal achievement

8.1.1. Functionalists believe that schools provide a fair process to sift out the best and brightest students no matter their family backgroun results will be unequal, but they are based on the students themselves and not group differences based on race or class

8.1.2. Conflict theorists believe that schools are supposed to reproduce inequality- that it is an innate part of the process

8.2. Student-centered explanations

8.2.1. Education gap

8.2.2. Genetic difference argument- that intelligence may play a part in inequality does not have much basis some researchers argue that the IQ tests are bias towards race and are therefore not credible

8.2.3. Cultural deprivation theory- many minorities and low-income families lack the cultural resources so their children arrive at school disadvantaged Values may be more deprived, thusly affecting motivation and discipline that it takes to excel in school Project Head Start- program that is trying to help this problem by getting to the kids earlier than kindergarten some researchers argue that it places blame on the families and not on the social and economic processes that produce poverty

8.2.4. Cultural Difference Theory- different cultures produce different attitudes and skills have their own "English" language that is not the schools' "English" language school may not be a priority high expectations from parents and schools are needed for high achievement and sometimes cultures do not have high expectations for their children in the same regard that other cultures do

8.3. School-Centered Explanations

8.3.1. Inequality in Education

8.3.2. School Financing Schools do not get the same financing and this is a big problem. This is inequality at its finest. It is yet to be proved, however, that financing affects achievement

8.3.3. Effective School Research- needed to pinpoint what needs to change to produce equal achievement, but hard to come by

8.3.4. Between-school differences: curriculum and pedagogic practices Many schools have advantages to engage students within their curriculum and some do not which causes inequality

8.3.5. Within-school differences: curriculum and ability grouping Teachers end up teaching to the 'middle' and those with low abilities are lost and those with high abilities are bored students need to be pushed to do more students with low abilities usually get stuck with rote learning and fact-based evaluation

8.3.6. Gender and Schooling women are limited in educational opportunities than men have

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. school-based reforms

9.1.1. school choice charter schools tuition vouchers help students attend certain schools that would otherwise not be able to

9.1.2. school-business partnerships not proven to improve schools not as popular as 30 years ago

9.1.3. privatization mixed reaction to more privatization of schools a private company has the majority of contracts for tutoring under the NCLB- which can be controversial

9.1.4. school-to-work programs providing skills to those students who are not college bound and so they will be successful in entering the work force

9.1.5. teacher education reports and article calling action in teacher education programs must be updated and increased rigor calls for schools that are organized for student and teacher success

9.1.6. teacher quality some schools are more transient with their teachers and are unable to hire quality teachers; mostly urban schools have this problem

9.2. other reforms

9.2.1. societal low-income, high-minority schools have less money to spend even with Title 1 funds

9.2.2. community the community greatly affects education many people think all the students' needs should be met which includes a collaboration between schools and communities

9.2.3. economic schools are not able to implement very much without funds to do it with

9.2.4. political many different programs and interventions are pushed through politically to help schools