Case Assignment

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Case Assignment により Mind Map: Case Assignment

1. Dartmouth college vs. Woodward

1.1. Background

1.1.1. 1816, the state legislature of New Hampshire passed laws that revised the charter. These laws changed the school from private to public. They changed the duties of the trustees. They changed how the trustees were selected.

1.2. Significance

2. Marbury vs. Madison

2.1. Background

2.1.1. William Marbury v. James Madison, Secretary of State of the United States John Adams appointd "Midnight Judges" at the end of his term and not all were delivered so when Jefferson was sworn into office he made sure the ones that hadn't been delivered yet didn't get delivered . The supreme court ruled that marbury has the right to his commision

2.2. Significance

2.2.1. Established Judicial Review

3. Fletcher vs. Peck

3.1. Background

3.1.1. In 1795 almost every member of the Georgia state legislature was bribed to permit the sale of 30 million acres of land at less than two cents per acre for a total of $500,000. Robert Fletcher purchased 15,000 acres from John Peck in 1803 for $3,000.

3.2. Significance

3.2.1. The decision was the first to declare a state legislative act unconstitutional.

4. McCulloch vs Maryland

4.1. Background

4.2. Significance

5. Dred Scott vs. Sanford

5.1. Background

5.1.1. Dred Scott sued Sanford in a state court, arguing that he was legally free because he and his family had lived in a territory where slavery was banned.

5.2. Significance

5.2.1. The Supreme Court ruled that Americans of African descent, whether free or slave, were not American citizens and could not sue in federal court.

6. Gibbons vs. ogden

6.1. Background

6.1.1. The dispute in this case concerned competing claims of rival steamship franchises. The state of New York gave Aaron Ogden an exclusive license to operate steamboat ferries between New Jersey and New York City on the Hudson River. Thomas Gibbons, another steamboat operator, ran two ferries along the same route.

6.2. Significance

6.2.1. This case vastly expanded the powers of Congress through a single clause in the Constitution: the Commerce Clause of Article I, Section 8.

7. Plessy vs. Ferguson

7.1. Background

7.1.1. In 1892 African American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a Jim Crow car, which was a Louisianna law, he stated it violated his rights in the 13th and 14th amendment .

7.2. Significance

7.2.1. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Court ruled that a state law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between whites and blacks did not conflict with the 13th and14th Amendments.

8. Brown vs. Board of Education

8.1. Background

8.1.1. Large portions of the United States had racially segregated schools, made legal by Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which held that segregated public facilities were constitutional so long as the black and white facilities were equal to each other.

8.2. Significance

8.2.1. The Supreme Court unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

9. Debs vs. United States

9.1. Background

9.1.1. The Petitioner, Debs, was found guilty for attempting to incite insubordination in the military by giving a speech.

9.2. Significance

9.2.1. The courts ruled that speech is not protected if one purpose of the speech, incidental or not, is to oppose war efforts.

10. United States vs. E.C. Knight and co.

10.1. Background

10.2. Significance

11. Roe vs. Wade

11.1. Background

11.1.1. In 1972, Norma McCorvey ("Jane Roe") filed a lawsuit claiming that a Texas law criminalizing most abortions violated her constitutional rights.

11.1.2. Court decision

11.2. Significance

11.2.1. The Court ruled that the states were forbidden from outlawing or regulating any aspect of abortion performed during the first trimester of pregnancy.

12. Schenk vs. United States

12.1. Background

12.1.1. Schnek v. US was the first Supreme Court case defining the modern understanding of the FIrst Amendment. There was a clear and present danger of criticism by not being recruited in the US enlisting of the army

12.2. Significance

12.2.1. Showed that the FIrst Amendment should have absolutely protected his speech. Court said that it was a clear and present danger with what he said

13. Lochner vs. New York

13.1. Background

13.1.1. In 1897, the state of New York passed the Bakeshop Act which stated an employee in a bakery may not work more than 60 hours a week. Joseph Lochner, was fined $50 for allowing an employee to work more than 60 hours in a week in his bakery.

13.2. Significance

13.2.1. Supreme Court ruled that a New York law setting maximum working hours for bakers was unconstitutional. The Court held that the Constitution prohibits states from interfering with most employment contracts because the right to buy and sell labor is a fundamental freedom protected by the Fourteenth Amendment.

14. Schechter Poultry Corporation vs. United States

14.1. Background

14.1.1. Regulation issues that were set up by the NIRA. FIxed waging and pricing on whole chickens including the unhealthy ones. Claims Schecter sold sick poultry.

14.2. Significance

14.2.1. Sold to interstate buyers. This prevented the federal courts from having any power because it was beyond federal reach.