History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications により Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cave Paintings: 2 million-40,000 and 10,000 years ago

1.1. a beautiful, detailed, and colorful representation found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings.

1.2. Loscaux, France- famous cave painting site

1.2.1. Had to close due to carbon dioxide damage caused by tourists

1.3. 3 Reasons

1.3.1. Religious superstition

1.3.2. Instructional, visual aid

1.3.3. To tell stories

1.4. First form of Graphic Communications

1.5. Themes

1.5.1. Large animals, such as bison, horses, and deer

1.5.2. Tracings of human hands

1.5.3. Abstract patterns

2. Cuneiform and Sumerians: 4,000 BC- 2,000 BC

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. 3 important things known about Sumerians They had a Theocratic culture, ruled by a priest king They were skilled artisans, that created vases, bowls, and other pottery Music seemed to have been an important part of their life

2.1.2. Settled in Sumer Region Had fertile ground due to many bodies of water Because of this, the Akkadians invaded the Sumer region Birthplace of Cuneiform Agriculture was practiced year round, due to fertile land. The huge amounts of food allowed them to stay in the area.

2.2. Cuneiform- the world's first written language

2.2.1. Written on clay tablets The clay tablets were made by wetting the clay, forming it into flat surfaces, then using a wedge-shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions into the surface.

2.2.2. It began as a series of pictographs, but became more abstract and the number of characters grew, until it became a wedge-shaped language.

2.2.3. Used to keep track of business transactions

3. Egyptian Hieroglyphics: 3,150 BC- 30 BC

3.1. Who were Scribes?

3.1.1. Military leaders became scribes so they could communicate while in battle.

3.1.2. Priests became scribes so they could read the scrolls to perform rituals to make peace with the gods and godesses.

3.1.3. Students also became scribes so they could read and write.

3.2. Ancient Egyptians

3.2.1. Ancient Egyptians believed it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government.

3.2.2. They created huge Pyramids, tombs, and temples. Inside the temples, they covered nearly every surface with Hieroglyphics.

3.2.3. Scholars believe that the Sumerian concept of expressing words in writing influenced the Ancient Egyptians to create the Hieroglyphics.

3.3. Papyrus

3.3.1. Scrolls of Hieroglyphics were made of papyrus.

3.3.2. Papyrus is a substrate made from reeds native to Egypt.

3.3.3. It was made by placing wet reeds criss cross over each other, then flattening and drying them. Finally, it was rubbed with flat stones until the surface became smooth.

3.4. Discoveries of Ancient Egypt

3.4.1. Books of the Dead A set of scrolls for pharaohs or other important Egyptians to read, containing a set of instructions and spells to help them find their way to the afterlife. These were usually commissioned by the users themselves before death.

3.4.2. Rosetta Stone Found by French soldiers in the city of Rosetta Has 3 languages written on it: Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek Currently is in the British Museum, since 1802 Hieroglyphics on the stone were deciphered by Jean Francois Champollion. His breakthrough came when he matched the Hieroglyphics with the Greek name for the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses. The inscription referred to King Ptolemy V Epiphanes at the time of his coronation, in about 196 BC.

3.4.3. In 1798, Egypt was invaded by French Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte. He compromised England's access to its trade routes. Then he invaded Egypt and established a French "Presence" in the Middle East.

3.5. Hieroglyphics were a formal writing system that was made up of logographic and alphabetic elements.

3.6. Hieroglyphic is formed from two Greek words: Hiero meaning sacred and Glyphic meaning engraving or writing.

4. Phonetic Alphabet: 1,050 BC- Hellenistic Period

4.1. Origins of the Phoenician Alphabet

4.1.1. Scholars thought it to be a direct variation of Egyptian Hieroglyphics. However, similarities between the two written systems could not be found. Others thought there were similarities to Cuneiform. Others thought it could have been an original, independent writing system, possibly even inspired by a different writing system.

4.2. The Phoenician Alphabet was based on the principle that one sign represents one spoken sound.

4.3. All letters started with consonants because the letters represented the consonants.

4.4. Why did the Phoenician Alphabet succeed?

4.4.1. It differed from other written scripts at the time, which had complicated characters and were hard to learn. As well as the trade culture of the Phoenician Merchants: they spread the the use of the alphabet into North Africa and Europe.

4.5. Throughout this time, the Roman Alphabet was being used and being changed.

4.5.1. It started in the 7th century BC and is still in use today. It has received many changes over the years.

4.5.2. Also referred to as the Latin Alphabet

4.5.3. There were two styles of lettering in use: A rigid, formal script that was used for important manuscripts and official documents A quicker, more informal style used for letters and more routine types of writing

4.5.4. The written language had serifs A serif is a "finishing-off stroke" These serifs came from the wood carvings of words into stone in Ancient Italy. How did serifs contribute to the type design? Stonesmen added little hooks to the tips of letters to prevent the chisel from slipping. This was very aesthetic and increased legibility, or clearness of handwriting, of the letterforms.

4.5.5. This language also included baselines, which were the lines upon which most letters sit and under which descenders extend. Descenders were the parts of the characters that lie below the baseline. This baseline ensured that the Romans arranged the type in perfect rows.

4.6. Long Terms Effects on Social Structures of other civilizations

4.6.1. Its simplicity allowed it to be used in many languages. The Phoenician letterforms were even used in Greek.

4.6.2. First widespread script

4.6.3. Allowed common people to learn to write The alphabet's simple appearance disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common people.

5. The Codex and the Illuminated Manuscript: 1st Century AD

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. 2 ways scrolls were rolled Simply just rolling them up Putting wooden rollers at each end

5.1.2. 2 ways of constructing a scroll A long, continuous piece of papyrus Made up of separate sheets glued together at the edges.

5.1.3. What was the drawback of a scroll? Scrolls only had a sequential usage, which means that the readers MUST read the text in the order it was written.

5.2. The Romans

5.2.1. Handwriting The Romans handwriting changed with the addition of lowercase letters and punctuation, where as before, there were only uppercase letters.

5.3. Parchment- a substrate made from animal skin such as sheep, goat, and cows.

5.3.1. How was it made? The hair and fat were removed and the skin was smoothed out. The hide of the animal was then soaked in water. Then, calcium, flour, and salt were added. Finally, the skin was stretched out, flattened, and dried.

5.3.2. What was vellum? A finer quality of parchment that was made from the skin of young calves.

5.3.3. Parchment gradually replaced papyrus because parchment was less fragile, which let the books to last even longer.

5.4. Codex- a covered and bound collection of handwritten pages.

5.4.1. Codex vs. Scrolls The Codex had many advantages over the scroll. The Codex was compact, sturdy, and easily allowed for reference. The Codex was "Random Access" which means that anyone could go to any section in the Codex to find information. It could be opened up to any page and was more portable than a scroll. The Codex was much easier to organize in a library because the title could be written on the spine. Disadvantage of scrolls. The Scroll was "Sequential Access" which means that people had to read through the scroll until they found the passage they were looking for.

5.4.2. The church used the Codex format for the Bible and the scriptures. Monastic Monks were the scribes of the church. They created most of the books by hand. They added beautiful illustrations and ornamentation to each page.

5.5. Illuminated Manuscript- the beautiful, artful books that were handwritten by the Monastic Monks

5.5.1. What does the "illumination" refer to here? It refers to the borders, illustrations, and ornamentation on each page of text. This "ornamentation" included initials of chapters or paragraphs and paintings in the margins, borders, and around the text. This illumination took months and years to make and required the skins of hundreds of animals.

5.5.2. Quill Pens They were made from plucking the feathers from geese, crows, and turkeys. Quills were used for the elaborate design Illuminated Manuscripts.

5.5.3. Illuminated Manuscripts were mainly used for religious written works because it was such a difficult task. Most were for Christian masses.

5.5.4. Around 1450 AD, Illuminated Manuscripts were being created less and less by hand because of the invention of the printing press.

5.6. The Dark Ages

5.6.1. A period of cultural and economical deterioration, or downturn. This time period was between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance.

6. The Gutenberg Press: Around 1439

6.1. The Printing Press- a hand press in which ink was rolled over a raised surface of movable, handset letters that were held within a wooden form. The form was pressed against a sheet of paper.

6.1.1. The Gutenberg Press established the technology of the screw-type for pressing wine grapes and olive oil seeds.

6.1.2. The first book to be printed on the printing press was the Bible.

6.1.3. The Gutenberg Press has impacted communication in many ways. 1-It perfected script and made it easier to read. 2-Books were made more rapidly; they no longer took years to make. 3-Current information could be shared locally and worldwide. 4-Cost decreased, which allowed more people to buy them. 5-The demand grew and population became more literate. Readers wanted books written in their own language and a greater variation of reading material. 6-Book trade began to thrive, as well as industries like paper making. 7-Economies became stronger. 8- Art and science began to prosper, leading to the beginning of the Renaissance.

6.2. The Gutenberg Press was invented by (and named after) Johannes Gutenberg.

6.2.1. Johhanes Gutenberg's father was an upper class merchant and goldsmith. He spent most of his time at the mint with the other goldsmiths and jewelers.

6.2.2. Gutenberg working at the mint with the goldsmiths and jewelers and his love of reading inspired him to find a better way to make books.

6.2.3. He began to experiment with metal typography.

6.2.4. He thought that metal type was better in comparison to the previous type because he thought it could be reproduced more quickly once a single mold was made. How was metal type made? Gutenberg made an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony that would melt at low temperatures, cast well in dye, and be more durable in the press. A hard, metal punch was hammered into a softer. copper bar, creating a matrix. This is then placed into a handheld mold and a piece of type is cast by filling the mold with molten metal. The matrix can then be reused so the same character appearing anywhere within the book will appear very uniform. Then the type is arranged into type cases and can be reused in any combination; that is why it's called movable type.

6.2.5. Gutenberg is acknowledged for the invention of oil-based ink. Oil-based ink was stronger than the water-based ink. Oil-based ink was an oily, varnish-like ink made from soot, turpentine, and walnut oil, created just for the printing press and movable type.

6.2.6. Gutenberg met with John Fust, a wealthy business man, to invest in his inventions. Fust and Gutenberg made an agreement: if Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials. To help meet the deadline, Gutenberg hired an assistant: Peter Schoeffer. Peter Schoeffer and John fust both took credit for the printing.

6.3. The world's first movable type system was created in China in the 13th century AD.

6.3.1. The type was carved from wood.

6.3.2. Movable type (also called metal type) is the system of printing and typography that use movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (the individual letters and punctuation).

6.3.3. China is also where the first paper was made. Paper- a substrate made from wood pulp created in China in 105 AD by Ts'ai Lun, a Chinese court official. The Chinese kept paper a secret for 500 years. The word got out and it spread quickly throughout Asia. The first paper-making mill in Europe appeared in about 1150 AD.

6.4. Other famous moments with the printing press

6.4.1. Caxton Caxton created the very first book written in English. He was the first Englishman to work as a printer and was also the first to bring the printing press to England.

6.4.2. 1704- The first American new printed weekly was the Boston Newsletter. It was published by John Campbell.

6.4.3. Lord Stanhope Lord Stanhope built a printing press made completely out of cast iron, which reduced the work force required by 90%. This also doubled the size of the printing area.

6.5. 4 Major Printing Processes

6.5.1. Relief Printing This was the oldest method of printing. Movable type was placed into the press, ink was spread on the type, and paper was put on top. The press applied the direct pressure needed to transfer the ink to the paper.

6.5.2. Intaglio Also called printmaking. An image area is etched into a plate surface to hold the ink. Ink is applied, then rubbed with a cloth to remove the excess. Damp paper is placed on top. A press applies pressure to transfer the ink onto the paper. This is used for high-quality magazines, fabrics, and wallpapers. Common uses include postage stamps and paper currency.

6.5.3. Porous This is a basic stencil process. An image carrier is attached to the screen. Ink is forced through open mesh areas. Example:Screen printing This is a very small part of the printing industry. It is acceptable for posters, signs, and shirts.

6.5.4. Lithography Also called planothography. This is printing from a flat surface. This is based on the concept that water and oil do not mix. A drawing or artwork is made on the plate with greasy ink or crayon. Water is applied. When ink is spread on top, the greasy parts accept ink and the wet parts do not. Most commercial printing, like brochures and business cards, are printed with a similar form of lithography called Offset Lithography.

7. The Linotype Machine: 1890

7.1. James Clephane

7.1.1. James Clephane was searching a simpler, easier way to write down his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies. Christopher Sholes was able to create the only commercially successful typewriter. Sholes realized that stenographers would be the most critical users of his typewriter. James Clephane tested out Christopher Sholes' typewriter.

7.1.2. James Clephane and Christopher Sholes went to Ottmar Mergenthaler to assist them with their typesetting machine. Ottmar suggested casting type from a metal matrix versus paper-mache. What is a matrix?

7.2. The Linotype Machine allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand. It made a solid line of type by casting hot lead into a series of molds that corresponded to individual letters.

7.2.1. The name "Linotype Machine" came from the fact that the machine produced an entire line of metal type at once.

7.2.2. The Linotype Keyboard It had 90 characters. There was no shift key, thus, uppercase letters had separate keys from the lowercase letters. The arrangement of letters was based on the letter frequency- most frequently used letters on the left. The keyboard had the same letter arrangement twice. Black Keys= lowercase letters White Keys= Uppercase Letters Blue Keys= Punctuation, digits, small capital letters, and fixed width spaces.

7.2.3. Slug- an assembled line of type that is cast as a single piece.

7.2.4. The Linotype Machine created a justified line of text by putting a space band between different sets of matrices and adjusting it until it was a justified line of text.

7.3. The Linotype Machine changed the newspaper industry by making it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis.

7.3.1. The first Linotype Machine was installed in the New York Tribune in July 1886.

8. History of Photography: 4th century-20th century

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. Camera Obscura was used as a way to observe light.

8.1.2. Camera Obscura was a "dark chamber." It's an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen.

8.1.3. In the 1500s, it was a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall. The outside scene passed through the lens and was projected onto the opposite wall. This scene was then traced.

8.1.4. In the 17th and 8th centuries, the camera obscura shrunk to the size of a portable box. The image reflected onto ground glass.

8.2. The name "photography" originated from the Greek words for light and writing.

8.2.1. Sir John Hershel first coined this phrase. He was an English mathematician, astronomer, and chemist.

8.3. 1827- Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph.

8.4. Louis Daguerre invented the first practical photographic process.

8.4.1. The name of this process is Daguerrotype. In this process, an image was exposed to a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image. The exposure time now only took 30 minutes.

8.5. Calotype Process

8.5.1. Th image/subject was exposed onto a light-sensitive paper producing a paper negative. This was first used in 1835.

8.5.2. This process is the basis of our modern photographic process. This is because the pictures could be duplicated after he made more improvements.

8.6. Frederick Scott Archer

8.6.1. In 1851, Archer invented the Wet Collodion Process/Wet Plate Process. In this process, glass plates were used as a negative to capture an image when exposed to light. This process reduced the exposure time to 2 or 3 seconds and cost less than the previous processes. Glass plates were coated with collodion, a colorless, syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether. The plates had to be exposed and developed immediately, while the plates were still wet.

8.7. Richard Maddox

8.7.1. In 1871, Maddox invented the Dry Plate Process. In this process, glass plates were coated with gelatin. Gelatin is a colorless, water-soluble, glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue.

8.8. George Eastman

8.8.1. In 1884, Eastman patented Roll Film, which was different from the previous films. Roll Film was a photographic medium that replaced glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls. Photo-Emulsion was a light sensitive coating on paper or film. He used gelatin as a base, added a thin celluloid back, and coated it with emulsion.

8.8.2. "You press the button, we do the rest." George Eastman used this phrase with a camera he manufactured. This phrase referred to that fact that the camera owner could send in the camera with a minimal processing fee. The company would process the film, reload the camera with a new roll, and return it to the owner.

8.8.3. On September 4,1888 he founded the Eastman Kodak Company. In 1900, George marketed the "Brownie" for only $1. He did this because he wanted to bring photography to the masses.

8.9. In 1861, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, took the first photograph in color.

8.10. Edwin Land

8.10.1. In 1948, Edwin Land patented the invention of instant photography. Instant Photography is the ability to take pictures in only 60 seconds.

8.11. Eadweard Muybridge

8.11.1. Muybridge led the way to motion picture photography.

8.11.2. Muybridge us a zoopraxiscope for his motion picture photography. A zoopraxiscope is a device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion.

8.11.3. Muybridge was hired to settle the debate over whether or not all 4 of a horse's hooves are off the ground at the same time during a gallop. He settled this debate by using a series of large cameras placed in a line, each triggered by a thread as a horse passed by.

9. History of Computers: 20th Century

9.1. Konrad Zuse

9.1.1. In 1936, Zuse invented the first freely programmable computer.

9.2. Howard Aiken

9.2.1. Grace Hopper In 1944, Aiken along with Grace Hopper designed the Mark series computer at Harvard University. The Mark computers were created for the Navy to use them for gunnery and ballistic calculations.

9.3. John Preseper Eckert

9.3.1. John Mauchly In 1951, John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly created the first commercial computer called Univac. It was for the Census Bureau. Univac= Universal Automatic Computer

9.4. In 1953, IBM came onto the scene.

9.4.1. IBM= International Business Machines

9.4.2. The first computer that IBM made was the IBM701 EDPM Computer.

9.4.3. In 1954, John Backus and IBM created the first high level programming language, Fortran. Fortran= The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System

9.4.4. In 1971, IBM made the floppy disk. The floppy disk was the first memory disk. It was called floppy disk because of its flexibility.

9.5. In 1962, Steve Russell and MIT invented the first computer game called SpaceWar.

9.6. Douglas Engelbart

9.6.1. In 1964, Douglas Engelbart invented the computer mouse. One day, Engelbart was in a conference about computer graphics and he got bored, because he knew the computer was going to get interactive and the people in the meeting didn't realize that, when they really should've thought about it more. H realized that pointing at the screen was going to be important so he thought of a device with 2 sets of wheels going 2 different way that could read how far up you moved it and how far sideways you moved the device, and he wrote it down in his trusty notebook. This tool was nicknamed the mouse because of the "tail" that connected to the computer.


9.7.1. In 1969, the first internet-called ARPANET-was created.

9.7.2. ARPANET= Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

9.7.3. It was developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers.

9.8. Intel

9.8.1. In 1971, Intel produced the Intel 4004-the first single chip microprocessor.

9.9. Xerox

9.9.1. Robert Metcalfe In 1973, Robert Metcalfe developed the first ethernet.

9.9.2. In the 1970s, Xerox Corporation developed the first GUI.

9.10. Some computer introduced during the mid 1970s include Scelbi Mark-8, Altair, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80, and Commodore PET.

9.11. Microsoft

9.11.1. In 1981, Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced MS-DOS. MS-DOS is a computer operating system. It came packaged with the IBM PC. PC=Personal Computer In 1985, Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced the Windows Operating System in response to Apple's operating system.

9.12. Apple

9.12.1. In 1983, Apple introduced LISA. LISA was different from other computers because it was the first personal computer with GUI. GUI=Graphical User Interface Xerox helped with this because they created the GUI.

9.12.2. In 1984, Apple introduced the Apple Macintosh Computer. This computer was the more affordable home computer with GUI.