6330 Instructional Design

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6330 Instructional Design により Mind Map: 6330 Instructional Design

1. History of Instructional media

1.1. Impacted by socio-cultural, political, technological shifts/changes

1.2. School museums (1900s)

1.2.1. Visual materials

1.2.2. shift in focus from teacher

1.3. Visual Instruction Movement/Instructional films (pre WW1 to Mid 1920s)

1.3.1. Magic lanters

1.3.2. Steropticons

1.3.3. Projectors

1.4. Audiovisual Instruction Movement and Instructional Radio (1920s/1930s)

1.4.1. Radio

1.4.2. Sound in movies

1.5. WW2 (Late 1930s to mid 1940s)

1.5.1. Impact on schools

1.5.2. Military training films and equipment

1.6. Post WW2 and media research

1.6.1. Comparison studies

1.6.2. Communication theories

1.6.3. Instructional TV

1.6.4. Shifting terminology

1.6.5. New technology Computers

1.7. Recent developments

1.7.1. CDRom

1.7.2. WWW Low cost Ease of access Increased interactivity Higher Ed and military use

1.7.3. Intranets

2. Different Models of ID

2.1. Linear

2.2. Spiral

2.3. Oval

2.4. Rapid Prototype

2.5. Learning by Doing

2.5.1. Case Based Reasoning

2.5.2. Kolb's Learning Cycle

2.5.3. Resource Based Learning

2.5.4. Dufour's Model

2.5.5. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Logical Problems Algorithms Story Problems Rule using problems Decision making problems Troubleshooting problems situated sace-policy problems Design problems Dilemma

2.5.6. RASE Model Resources Activity Support Evaluation

2.6. Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64.

2.6.1. Four Component Instructional Design Model Learning Tasks Concrete, authentic Supportive Information Bridge from prior knowledge JIT Information Prerequesite learning information Part-task Practice Small step to build larger skills

2.7. 'Real life' Factrors

2.7.1. Moallen, M (1998). An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: An ethnographic study. Educational technology, Research and Development. 46, 2. ID is spontaneous and does not conform to strict rules ID Models should focus on fluid design that evolves as needs require Construstivist better than cognitivist in school setting.

2.8. Problem Based Learning

2.8.1. Savery, J. R., and Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35, 31-38. Constructivist Elements Learners construct knowledge through PBL Critical and Creative Thinking Puzzlement as stimulus Socially negotiated knowledge Goals Self-Directed Learning Content Knowledge Problem Solving

2.9. Online Learning

2.9.1. Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University. Flexibility Ecomony Enhanced Learning Learning tasks authentic assessment Learning resources Interactivity Use of media Learning supports Online Social Scaffolding Learning communities Learning designs PBL Situated learning Case-based learning Project based learning Inquiry Role-playing/sims

3. Project Development Stages

3.1. ADDIE

3.1.1. Analysis Considerations Needs Analysis User/Audience Analysis System/technology Analysis Content Feasability Risk Other Considerations Project Proposal Gives Clients enough info to green light project Elements

3.1.2. Design Design: Stage 1 Define a Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis/Task analysis Analyse learners and context Write performance/Learning Objectives Develop assessment strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Arrange Instructional Events Develop a set of flowcharts Design Stage 2 Flowcharts arrange ideas Storyboard show how those ideas will appear

3.1.3. Development Prototype Working Model Representation of final project Provides information to allow client and team to see basic format of the final product Important Evolution tool Types of products designed Multimedia Learning Theory Interface Design Interaction Design PresentationDesign Prototype Evaluation Design

3.1.4. Implementation Delivery

3.1.5. Evaluation Summative Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1994). Evaluating Training Programs. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

3.2. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat2.html

3.3. Different approaches/flows to achieve.

3.4. Project team roles

3.4.1. Depends on scale of project

3.4.2. Work insourced and outsourced

3.4.3. ID is central to project

4. Learning Theories

4.1. Instructivist Models

4.2. Constructivist Models

4.3. Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories.

4.3.1. Behaviourism Key concepts Mind as black box Cause/effect Learning through interaction Extrinsic motiviation Theorists Watson Pavlov Skinner

4.3.2. Cognitivism Key Concepts Mind central to understanding learning Internal information processing mental models Thinking involves manipulation of representations Rules, patterns strategies, chunking Theorists Piaget

4.3.3. Constructivism Key Concepts Subjective mental representations Knowledge constructed through assimilation and accommodation of new information Social negotiation of knowledge contextual learning Theorists Congitive Constructivists Social Constructivists

5. Instructional Designing

5.1. Instructional Design vs Lesson Planning

5.1.1. Broader, tends to manage project of learning design, rather than deliver it.

5.1.2. Sometimes ID will not even know who will teach/deliver learning

5.2. ID in different Environments

5.2.1. Case Studies Range of studies that looked at the process, problems and dynamics of ID in educational and commercial settings. Large and small scale projects explored.

5.2.2. Educational & Commercial Context for Development Outsourcing In House Buy existing

5.3. History

5.3.1. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64. History of instructional Design Origins 1950s to 1960s developments Early ID models