Science

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Science により Mind Map: Science

1. Chemistry

1.1. Subtopics

1.1.1. Molecules and Scale

1.1.1.1. The minimal difference between molecules has such a large impact on the resulting function of the molecule.

1.1.1.1.1. Consider the difference between single and double bonds in molecules, especially alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes, and other carbon molecules.

1.1.1.2. Materials Science

1.1.1.2.1. Materials Science focuses on understanding the physical and chemical principles of materials and utilizing knowledge and research to inform the creation of man-made materials that are intended to serve a specific function. (National Research Council).

1.1.2. Directed Evolution

1.1.2.1. Biomimicry and Materials Ecology

1.1.2.1.1. Biomimicry is a descriptor for any portion of a scientific field that relies on the natural world for inspiration.

1.1.2.1.2. Materials ecology, as defined in Neri Oxman’s TED talk:

1.1.2.2. The biomimicry and materials ecology technologies rely on an understanding of molecular level forces, whether it is genes, proteins, synthetic materials, or chemical and physical processes.

1.1.2.2.1. Combined with modern technology- such as 3D printers, increased knowledge in these fields enables materials to be self-constructed.

1.1.2.3. Directed evolution is the concept of using technology, additional concepts such as biomimicry and materials ecology, fields such as molecular engineering and microbiology, to create alternate natural substances out of synthetic components.

1.1.2.3.1. While seemingly contradictory, the technology essentially relies on humans to speed up evolution, manually creating amino acids, proteins, enzymes, genes, etc. that would otherwise take millennia to evolve.

1.1.2.4. Computational Protein Design (From David Baker’s TED talk).

1.1.2.4.1. This is a recently developed technology that allows the creation of new amino acids and the creation of synthetic proteins.

1.1.2.4.2. A few of the resulting capabilities are:

1.1.3. Chemical Reactions

1.1.3.1. Rate Laws

1.1.3.1.1. Essentially rate laws focus on the changes of concentration of reactants and products over time, as well as the exchange of energy.

1.1.3.1.2. Rate laws are the rate of change of the concentration measured against the length of the reaction.

1.1.3.2. Combustion Reactions

1.1.3.2.1. Combustion reactions are redox reactions. Redox reactions are also called oxidation-reduction reactions.

1.1.3.2.2. Consequences

1.1.3.3. For Catalysts or Le Chatlier’s principle See: Action, Chemistry

1.2. Skills

1.2.1. Stoichiometry

1.2.1.1. Rate law calulations

1.2.1.1.1. Energy of reactions (Kinematics)

1.2.1.2. Stoichiometry, despite the convoluted name, is actually fairly mathematically simple.

1.2.1.2.1. It relies on using proportions to convert between one unit and another.

1.2.1.2.2. An important aspect of stoichiometry is understanding that in chemical reactions, no matter is created or destroyed.

1.2.1.3. Balancing reactions

1.2.1.3.1. Since no matter can be created or destroyed in a reaction, reactions are always proportional.

1.2.2. Nomenclature

1.2.2.1. In chemistry, word endings are very important. The difference between chlorine and chloride, completely changes how the molecule will bond or react with other molecules.

1.2.2.1.1. Chlorine (molecular chlorine, not the element) is made up of two chlorine atoms which are covalently bonded to each other, meaning they share electrons, and the molecule is stable in this form.

1.2.2.1.2. Chloride, in contrast, is only found bonded to another atom. With three chlorine atoms, chloride is incapable of forming a covalent bond; it must form an ionic bond to a metal such as aluminum.

1.2.2.2. Entire categories of molecules are distinguished by a single letter change.

1.2.2.2.1. Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes are types of carbon molecules that are often found in oil and are used to make plastic.

2. Physics

2.1. Radioactivity

2.1.1. Radioactivity is a type of radiation where an unstable particle releases alpha and beta waves, and gamma rays until it decays into a non-radioactive isotope.

2.1.1.1. Alpha Waves

2.1.1.1.1. Alpha waves are the nuclei of helium atoms. They are unable to penetrate a piece of paper.

2.1.1.2. Beta Waves

2.1.1.2.1. Beta waves are high energy electrons that are released when a neutron decays into a proton. They are unable to penetrate a few millimeters of aluminum.

2.1.1.3. Gamma Rays

2.1.1.3.1. Gamma rays are very energetic electromagnetic radiation, that can range up to several mega-electron-volts in energy. They can penetrate a few centimeters of lead.

2.1.2. Half Lives

2.1.2.1. A half life is the amount of time it takes for half of the mass of a material to decay into another.

2.1.2.1.1. For example, the radioactive nuclide 24Na takes 15.4 hrs for the beta particles to decay to 24Mg. From here the remaining mass of the sodium isotope takes the same amount of time to halfway decay to magnesium. Meaning that after 30.8 hours, three quarters of the sodium decayed into magnesium.

2.1.3. Significance

2.1.3.1. There are many, many ways in which radioactivity contributes significantly to the modern world as we know it. From radiocarbon dating, which is reliant on the radioactive isotope, carbon 14, to medical x-rays, security scanners in airports, and nuclear power generation, radioactivity is highly prolific in daily life.

2.1.3.2. With applications in power generation, weapons of mass destruction, healthcare, security, space travel, archeology and paleontology, and many, many more fields, radioactivity has enabled significant development of human society (US Nuclear Regulatory Commision).

2.2. Relativity

2.2.1. Special Relativity

2.2.1.1. Time Dilation

2.2.1.1.1. When an object is approaching the speed of light, time slows.

2.2.1.1.2. At the speed of light, time stops completely.

2.2.1.1.3. And theoretically, since this has not been achieved, faster than light travel would also travel backwards in time, relative to anything traveling slower than the speed of light.

2.2.1.2. Length Concentration

2.2.1.2.1. The length or size of an object is dependent on perspective, and on the movement of both the object and the observer.

2.2.1.3. Special relativity considers motion and time to be relative to a measurement baseline. Since this baseline is either moving through time or space as well as the object being measured, the same object could be observed moving two different ways for different baselines used.

2.2.1.3.1. For example, a human standing still outside is not moving relative to the ground beneath them. But they are moving relative to the sun, because the Earth is both rotating and in orbit around the sun.

2.2.2. General Relativity

2.2.2.1. Space and time are not absolute constants, but they are measurable.

2.2.2.2. The speed of light is always constant.

3. Data

3.1. Significant Figures

3.1.1. A significant figure is a digit in a number that provide information about the accuracy of a measurement. For example the number 54.3 kWh has three significant figures.

3.1.2. Understanding the importance of significant figures is essential to evaluating and analyzing data.

3.1.2.1. R-squared values

3.1.2.1.1. If you calculate an r-squared value of the fit of a curve to a data set to the tenths place, and you are comparing the fit of the curve to a linear function, and the curves both fit the data set with a r-squared value of 0.9, then you are unable to tell whether the system you are studying follows a linear or exponential (or parabolic, etc.) trend.

3.1.2.1.2. If an exponential trend is mistaken for a linear trend in real world applications of data such as the trend of increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, then the calculation error could have drastic, irreversible effects, such as global warming proceeding at an unprecedented and unexpected rate.

3.1.2.2. Scientific notation

3.1.2.2.1. The importance of significant figures in r-squared value calculations can be similarly applied to scientific notation.

3.1.2.2.2. If you took a number and rounded it in calculations, and then the number is multiplied, then the resulting number will be extremely different than if the number had not been rounded.