Mental Health of African American Student Athletes

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Mental Health of African American Student Athletes により Mind Map: Mental Health of African American Student Athletes

1. African American students find it difficult to go to a predominantly white school because of the harsh environment and cultural differences, PWIS also have lack of resources, financial assistance and social resources to students of color. (Payne, & Suddler, 2014)

1.1. Students of color are often not given proper resources that they would receive from a school that was more diverse, they lack financial, social and other resources at PWIS.

2. Many PWIS profit millions of of African American College athletes which leave the athletes uncompensated for their success and bringing in millions to the college program. Many of the PWIS shoe case their African American student athlete, and leave them in hostile stressful environments in comparison to HBCUS, which do not receive as much money and provide less stressful and safer environments for athletes of color. (Hill, 2019)

2.1. PWIS profit millions off of African American College athletes and leave them uncompensated, versus at HBCUS where student athletes of color are in less stressful environments and are not showcased or tokenized.

3. Sterotyping

3.1. Many African Americans are with multiple identities are stigmatized, especially those whom are athletes. Many student athletes of color have the stereotype of "dumb jock" more than their white counterparts due. (Harrison, &, Stone, & Mottley, 2012)

3.1.1. African Americans are often stigmatized due to their status on university campuses. This leads to pressure to look, act or perform a specific way that is deemed as "acceptable".

3.2. Studies show that limiting athletes to one identity such as "the athlete" impairs their performance in school. Feel more pressure to prove that they belong on the academic side of campus more than other white student athletes. (Harrison, &, Stone, & Mottley, 2012)

3.2.1. The pressure for African American student athletes to be academically sucessful has caused an impairment with academic performance. Pressure is applied more harshly to the students athletes of color than their white counterparts

3.3. Stereotyping comes from a cognitive imbalance that happens when cues in a social context activate three different links - The belief of the stereotype that the social group typically underperforms in a specific domain. 2 - The relationship that the member has in the target group. 3- The want to perform well in ones specific domain. The imbalance between these three things causes distress. Diminish motivation to succeed. (Harrison, &, Stone, & Mottley, 2012)

3.3.1. There are three links that are associated with cognitive imbalances, the belief that the social group typically under performs in a specific domain, the relationship that the member has with the target group, and the want to perform well in the specific domain.

4. Challenges

4.1. Many students who are LBGT and of color in the sports community face great oppression an hostile environments, it is common for the environment to be homophobic and hostile, including most college sports environments reinforce a violent form of masculinity. (Kroshus, & Devoren, 2016)

4.1.1. In many college sports worlds there are identities that are oppressed by athletes of color, and an environment that encourages hostile masculinity that suppresses LGBTQ identifies from the athletes.

4.2. Student athletes of color are often discouraged from excelling in school work and being academically successful, be their peers and coaches based on their performance as a "stereotype". If students are generalized by their white counter parts it provides discourage to excel in any other realm besides sports. This create a divergence between student athletes of color and other students. (Czopp, 2010)

4.2.1. Black student athletes are discouraged from performing academically well if they are good at sports, which is a common stereotype of athletes of color.

4.2.2. Coaches and Peers and discourage athletes from doing well in any other fields besides sports.

4.3. Athletes are faced with two decisions, to be successful within their sport or to be successful academically, but many PWIS do not give the time and resources to students of color who are also athletes to do both. There is a radical ideology that sport performance is decided by the color of their skin, and are expected to live up to this belief. Student athletes of color have to compete with their white counterparts in academic environments that are racially motivated, which is left a gap between black student athletes and other students in graduation rates. (Wycliffe, 2012).

4.3.1. Student athletes of color are having to be academic as well as athletic in racially profiling environments which has a correlation to their lack of graduation rates to their white counterparts.

5. Mental Health

5.1. Division 1 student athletes suffer with more anxiety than the average student which effects their academics as well as sports performances. Student athletes are less likely to seek help for mental illnesses that they may experience because of expectation for strength and stability. (Schlimmer, & Chin, 2019)

5.1.1. Student athletes are expected to be strong and stable students, perform well in the classroom as well as in their sports which causes generalized anxiety order. In addition to this they often do not seek help out of feelings of being ashamed.

5.2. Nearly a quarter of student athletes experience depression, depression can also be associated with lack of sleep which most student athletes have reported sleeping on average 6 hours a night. 10 -21% of student athletes have reported feeling depressed thoughts as well as feelings of hopelessness and exhaustion. Student athletes are less likely to reach out due to the social norms and stereotypes that they encounter within college campuses. (Ryan, & Gaston, & Bells, 2018)

5.2.1. Many student athletes are reported feeling depressed and anxious but do not seek help due to the social norm and stereotype that they are athletes and do not experience mental health issues. Many athletes are over worked and experience on average 6 hours of sleep a night which has links to depression.

5.3. African American College students are at higher risk of anxiety, depression and stress at PWI and racially aggressive institutions. These students at PWIS experience less academic support, social support, more stigma and institutional support than their white counterparts. African American students at PWIS are likely to experience more mental health issues and less academic support leading to an overall lower GPA average. (Velez, & Bertrand, & Keels, 2017)

5.3.1. African American students at PWIS are more likely to face mental illness due to racially aggressive environments, they experience less support from the institution, academics and social support as well as more stigmas against their race, resulting in lower grade point averages and lower GPAS.

5.3.2. PWIS usually have stressing environments for African American Students, the environments are often recorded as distressing, isolation and discriminatory. This results in high racial stress relations to these students which has negative psychological effects. Minority Status Stress is a term used to describe the stress from minorities, especially at PWIS these stressors have negative effects psychologically on these students which means the MSS can effect a students psychological well being and identity. (McClain, &, Beasley, &, Jones, &, Awosogba, &, Jackson, &, Cokley, 2016) MSS is minority status stress which is caused from hostile environments that are not in favor of the minority student which changes their psychological status and identity.