Special Education Disabilities and Accomodations (as defined by IDEA)

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Special Education Disabilities and Accomodations (as defined by IDEA) da Mind Map: Special Education Disabilities and Accomodations (as defined by IDEA)

1. Deaf-Blindness

1.1. Use touch cues

1.2. Due to slow response times, allow time for student to respond

1.3. Allow student to have control when exploring objects

1.4. Use fingerspelling, which is a form of sign language in which individual letters are formed by the fingers to spell out words

1.5. Assistive technology might include Braille, Braille translation software that coverts print into Braille and Braille into print, and a Braille printer that embosses Braille on paper.

2. Deafness

2.1. Preferred seating to facilitate lip reading

2.2. A combination of communication including speech, lip reading, sign language, and fingerspelling

2.3. An interpreter for those who use sign language, as well as a notetaker

2.4. Special work on communication and language development

2.5. Collaboration between teacher, interpreter, notetaker, speech therapist, and parents

2.6. Teacher and peer training in sign language

2.7. Assistive technology might include visual alerting devices, captioning, real-time transcription devices, and telecommunication devices

3. Developmental Delay

3.1. Provide daily opportunities and activities for children to use handheld tools and objects.

3.2. Allow student time to complete tasks and practice skills at own pace

3.3. Peer tutoring to assist with keeping the student on track

3.4. Be patient so that frustration is avoided

3.5. Assignments and activities should be individualized based on the student's progress

3.6. Assistive technology might include a daily calendar showing routine activities, a rocking chair, swing, a set of headphones for blocking noises, or other tools that enable the student to express needs or interests

4. Emotional Disturbance

4.1. Form relationships based on trust, empathy, and mutual respect to help with problem behaviors and to positively impact the student

4.2. Allowing students to choose between classroom tasks

4.3. Consistent and specific praise

4.4. Supporting academic performance as much as possible

4.5. Bringing together teachers, counselor, family, school nurse, etc. to create a support network for the student

4.6. Assistive technology might include word processing programs that read the text as it is typed

5. Hearing Impairment

5.1. Use of amplification systems

5.2. Regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

5.3. Preferred seating

5.4. Teacher and peer training in sign language

5.5. The use of notetakers and interpreters in the classroom

5.6. Collaboration between teacher, interpreter, notetaker, audiologist, and parents

5.7. Assistive technology might include hearing aids and auditory training devices, FM systems, special software programs, alerting devices, captioning, telecommunication devices, cochlear implants, etc.

6. Intellectual Disability

6.1. Teach in small groups or one-on-one

6.2. Teach concepts one step at a time to help support memorization and sequencing

6.3. Provide many opportunities to practice skills in different settings

6.4. Use physical and verbal cues and provide verbal praise to reinforce responses

6.5. Assistive technology might include manipulatives for math, literacy software and learning software that addresses the interests of the student

6.6. Use of the same supplies and devices as classmates

7. Multiple Disabilities

7.1. An educational program that involves parents, teachers, therapists focusing on the student's strengths and weaknesses

7.2. Reciprocal peer tutoring

7.3. Preferred seating

7.4. Assistive technology might include a handheld PC with touch screen

8. Orthopedic Impairment

8.1. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

8.2. Instruction by physical and occupational therapists focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

8.3. Speech-Language Pathologists who work with the student on problems with speech and language

8.4. Instruction by other therapists (ex. massage therapists, music therapists, etc.)

8.5. An awareness of the condition and how it affects the student

8.6. Assistive technology might include speech recognition and reading software, communication boards, wheelchairs, walkers, etc.

9. Other Health Impairment

9.1. Allow extra time for these students to shift from one activity or environment to the next.

9.2. Teach techniques for organizing thoughts and materials

9.3. Preferred seating away from peers that might be distracting

9.4. Post schedules that outline the day and/or week. Use them to direct the student back on task.

9.5. Simplify assignments to make them more manageable

9.6. Assistive technology might include notebooks, folders, and dividers to keep work organized, as well as a schedule organizer

10. Specific Learning Disability

10.1. Break long assignments into smaller parts

10.2. Written, verbal, and instructional cues to draw attention to important information

10.3. Categorizing and repeating information to be remembered

10.4. Control reading materials used so that students are presented with as few unfamiliar words as possible

10.5. Ask questions before reading to help students look for important information

10.6. Writing assignments should be designed to meet the needs of individual children

10.7. Assistive technology might include technological tools for writing, PCs, audio books, on-screen keyboards, voice recognition software, etc.

11. Speech or learning impairment

11.1. A collaborative effort including parents, the general education teacher, special education teacher, and speech-language pathologist to incorporate strategies to help the student

11.2. Services provided by a speech-language pathologist to help student articulate, to help with stuttering and/or voice disorders, and problems with swallowing

11.3. Assistive technology might include computer software packages to develop speech and language skills, and/or the use of augmentative or alternative communication (AAC), which is the use of symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques to enhance the communication process.

12. Traumatic Brain Injury

12.1. Give directions one at a time

12.2. Show the student how to perform new tasks

12.3. Have consistent routines

12.4. Provide more time to finish schoolwork and tests

12.5. Realize that the student may get tired quickly and be flexible

12.6. Keep in touch with the student’s parents

12.7. Preferred seating

12.8. Assistive technology might include schedule organizers, medication reminders, smartphones, tinted overlays for reading, canes, wheelchairs, specialized desks, etc.

13. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

13.1. Foster independence as often as possible and encourage the student to move independently through the classroom

13.2. Materials, desks, and other objects in the classroom should be maintained in consistent locations. Ensure the classroom is safe.

13.3. Control lighting variables when presenting learning materials to those students who are sensitive to light and glare

13.4. Use verbal cues with those students who cannot see body movements or physical cues

13.5. Instructional materials in Braille or recorded media. Large print text and optical devices, like magnifiers.

13.6. Assistive technology might include talking calculators, Braille printers, screen enlargement software, and Braille translation software and equipment.

14. Autism

14.1. Use of visual supports and cues, including picture symbols

14.2. The classroom should have clearly marked work and leisure areas

14.3. Allow many opportunities to practice new skills throughout the day

14.4. Establish strong relationships with parents to foster practicing newly-learned skills at home

14.5. Be flexible, as the needs of students with Autism vary greatly from student to student

14.6. Provide thorough sub plans so that your sub is aware of your student's needs and the day will go more smoothly for sub and student

14.7. Assistive technology should include a system of communication that works best for the student. This could be sign language, picture symbols, electronic devices, computer programs, or a combination these or others.