Chapter 2  Multimedia Hardware and Software

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Chapter 2  Multimedia Hardware and Software da Mind Map: Chapter 2  Multimedia Hardware and Software

1. Overview

1.1. 4 basic stages in a multimedia project

1.2. Multimedia Development process

2. 4 basic stages in a multimedia project

2.1. Planning & Costing

2.1.1. Objective :What is the purpose of creating the project? Scope/boundary of the project :how much time to develop the  project. :Consider the knowledge and skills needed

2.1.2. Target users - To whom the project is created for? - Some background research may conducted.

2.1.3. Set the contents :Content or information will determine the size of the project. :”Consideration before determining the content are:       -Obtaining rights to use exiting resources.       -Digitizing pictures, audio, and video.

2.1.4. Prepare time estimate and a budget. Prepare a short prototype or proof-of-concept.

2.2. Designing & Producing

2.2.1. Perform each of the planned tasks to create a finished product.

2.3. Testing

2.3.1. - Every feature and function must be exercised, every button or link must be clicked 1. Alpha Testing - performed only by users within the organization developing the software as a form of internal acceptance testing. -may be missing part of the content or functionality. - concept, format, user interface and the layout. 2. Beta Testing - evaluated just before the final release. - fully functioning product and should be relative bug free. - is to find bugs or content errors - The testing group should be represented by the real users and should not include the people who have been involved in the project.

2.4. Delivering

2.4.1. - Final stage - Package and deliver the project to the end user. - Be prepared to follow up over time with tweaks, repairs, and upgrades.

3. Multimedia Development process

3.1. The Intangibles

3.1.1. Creativity :knowledge of hardware and software. :Most precious asset

3.1.2. Organization skills, time, budget, tools, and resources

3.1.3. Communication Communication among the workgroup and client

3.2. Multimedia Skills

3.2.1. Project manager :The leader of a project :oversee the entire project. Responsible for overall development, implementation of the project and day to day operations.

3.2.2. Multimedia Designer :overall content of a project, creates a structure for the content. :Determines the design elements required to support that structure.

3.2.3. Interface designer :designing each screen or page interface or modify the content simplicity

3.2.4. Writer :Create characters and actors’ narrations. :Write text screens to deliver message.

3.2.5. Video /Audio Specialist audio and video production - shooting, capturing and editing video, digitizing and audio recording.

3.2.6. Multimedia Programmers integrate all the elements using an authoring system or programming language.

3.3. Hardware

3.3.1. - Macintosh and the Windows PC combination of affordability and software and hardware availability. Windows vs. Macintosh -Microsoft Windows operating system can run on assemblages of hardware from countless manufacturers. -Unlike Microsoft, primarily a software company, Apple is a hardware manufacturing company  that  developed  its  own  proprietary software  to run the hardware. -Apple Computer produces both the computer and the operating system. -Many developers believe that multimedia project development is  smoother  and  easier on  the  Macintosh  than  in Windows

3.3.2. Connections Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) standard interface for connecting a motherboard to storage devices Universal Serial Bus (USB) -connect a computer to devices such as digital cameras, printers, scanners, and external hard drives.   -iplug-and-play interface (without reconfiguration or adjustment by the user) FireWire (IEEE 1394) - Introduced by Apple in the 1980s   -For connecting devices to personal computer.   -provides a single plug-and-socket connection on which up to 63 devices

3.3.3. Memory and storage devices - Sufficient memory must be allocated for storing and archiving files. - Memory requirements depend on the project’s content and scope. RAM ROM Hard disks Flash or thumb drives CD-ROM DVD Blu-ray discs

3.3.4. Input devices An optical character recognition (OCR) device is used to convert printed matter into ASCII text files. Barcode reader recognize the numeric characters of the Universal Product Code (UPC) Voice recognition systems recognize spoken words and commands. Microphones Digital cameras

3.3.5. Output devices Stereo Monitor Projector Printer

3.4. Software

3.4.1. Text editing and word processing tools - Word processors such as Microsoft Word and WordPerfect are powerful applications that include spell checkers, table formatters, and prebuilt templates for letters, resumes, purchase orders, and other common documents.   -OpenOffice is a free, downloadable word processing program.

3.4.2. OCR software - Makes use of probability and expert system algorithms - Converts bitmapped characters into electronically recognizable text - Is very accurate and saves time and effort

3.4.3. Painting tools allow you to create and modify bitmap images.  - Photoshop, Fireworks, and Painter are examples.

3.4.4. Drawing tools allow you to create and modify vector graphics.   - CorelDraw, Illustrator, and Canvas are examples. - Vector graphics are used by Adobe Flash to reduce download time and scaling problems with web graphics.

3.4.5. Painting and drawing software features - An intuitive graphical user interface - Scalable dimensions - Multiple undo capability  - Scalable text font support - Support for third-party special effect plug-ins - Layering capability - such as smoothing coarse-edged objects into the background with anti-aliasing.

3.4.6. 3-D modeling tools allow rendering of objects in a three-dimensional perspective. - VectorWorks, AutoDesk Maya, and Strata 3D are examples. - 3-D graphics usually take a long time to render,  so plan accordingly.

3.4.7. Image editing tools - Powerful tools for enhancing retouching, blurring, sharpening, lightening existing bitmapped images. - Many painting and drawing programs also serve  as image editors. - Support third party plug-in.

3.4.8. Sound editing tools - Cut, copy, paste, and edit certain segments of the music   - Enable the user to see music as a waveform as well as hear sound.

3.4.9. Animation, video, and digital movie tools

3.5. Authoring Systems

3.5.1. - Organize and edit the multimedia elements - Design screen layouts(interface) using templates - Create interactivity assembling diverse multimedia elements into a single, cohesive product.

3.5.2. Types of authoring tools Card- and page-based authoring tools - Elements are arranged like pages of a book or cards in a stack. - buttons, text fields, and graphic objects. - easy to move from page to page - LiveCode Icon- and object-based authoring tools -visual programming approach to organizing and presenting multimedia application. - Multimedia elements and interaction cues are organized as objects in a flow chart. - Flow charts can be built by dragging appropriate icons from a library and then adding the content. Time-based authoring tools -organized along a time line. - Best suited for messages with a beginning and an end. - Developer can coordinate the time, speed and display length of each elements. - Adobe Flash and Adobe Director

3.5.3. Objects - Authoring tools generally treat multimedia elements as objects. - Each object is assigned properties or modifiers. - Objects may contain scripts that specify a related action.

3.5.4. Choosing an authoring tool Editing and organizing features - include editing tools to create, edit, and convert multimedia elements such as animation and video clips.   - The organization, design, and production process for multimedia involves story boarding and flow charting.   - Visual flow charting or an overview facility illustrates project structure at a macro level. Programming features - Visual programming with icons or objects is the simplest and easiest authoring process.   - Authoring tools offer “very high level language” (VHLL) or interpreted scripting environment. : for navigation control and for enabling user inputs.   : Example: Flash, Livecode, & Toolbook. Interactivity features Interactivity gives the end user control over the content and flow of information in a project. Performance-tuning Achieving synchronization is difficult, authoring system should facilitate precise timing of events. playback features These features should enable developers to build part of a project and then test it immediately. Delivery features - A run-time or stand-alone version allows a project to be executed without authoring software - Run time version not allow user to access and change the contents. Cross-platform use tools that facilitate easy transfer across platforms(example from Macintosh to Windows). Internet-playability features Authoring systems provide a means for converting their output to be delivered within the context of HTML or DHTML.