## 1. Reliability- “refers to the consistency with which it yield the same rank for individuals who take the test more than once” (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2013. pg. 338). A test is reliable if it always produces the same or close to the same grades after given the test many times.

### 1.1. Test-retest or stability- “a test is given twice, and the correlation between the first set of scores and the second set of scores id determined” (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2013. pg. 338).

### 1.2. Alternate forms or equivalence-estimates of reliability are obtained by administering two alternate or equivalent forms of a test to the same group and correlating their scores.

### 1.3. Internal consistency- Items that should be associated to each other and the test have to be internally consistent.

### 1.4. Split-half methods-involves splitting the test into two equivalent halves and determining the correlation between them. “To find the split half (or odd-even) reliability, each item is assigned to one half of the other. Then, the total score for each student on the each half is determined and the correlation between the two total scores for both halves is computed” (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2013. pg. 341).

### 1.5. Kuder-richardson methods-measures the degree to which items within one form of the test have as much in common with one another as do the items in that one form with corresponding items in an equivalent form.

## 2. Validity- The test given to the certain grade level is supposed to evaluate the capacity of those students in that particular subject. Like the authors said if a test is given to find out the ability of the third grade students in arithmetic, the test should measure that, not the arithmetic skills of a fifth grader or the ability in reading.

### 2.1. Content Validity Evidence-is measured by comparing a test item with instructional objectives to see if they match.

### 2.2. Criterion-Related Validity- this is established by correlating test scores with an external standard or criterion to obtain a numerical estimate of validity evidence

2.2.1. Concurrent criterion-Related validity evidence- is determined by comparing test scores with a criterion measure collected at the same time. This can be done by giving the actual test and a new test to a group of students at the same time and then the teacher can find out the association with the two sets of test scores.

2.2.2. Predictive validity evidence-is determined by correlating test scores with at criterion measure gathered after a period of time. This is done by giving a test to a group of people, then the test measure the people on what the test is supposed to forecast after time has passed by.