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1. Before the verb to add extra emphasis

1.1. Eg: You really have to see it to believe it.

2. Obligation and necessity

2.1. must (mustn't)/have to/ have got to/ need to

2.1.1. Eg: You mustn't dress to casually for work.

2.1.2. Eg: You have to get a work permit before you go.

2.2. Must

2.2.1. is a modal verb Eg: He must try a bit harder.

2.2.2. obligation comes from the speaker Eg: You must invite me to visit you.

2.2.3. used on signs, notices, printed information Eg: All employees must hold a valid work permit.

2.3. Have to/ need to

2.3.1. is an institutional rule / a law Eg: You have to get a work permit before you go

3. No obligation

3.1. Not have to/ not need to/ needn't

3.1.1. to suggest Eg: You needn't buy lots of guide books before you go.

3.2. Needn't have + past participle/ didn't need to/ didn't have to

3.2.1. to talk about lack of obligation in the past Eg: I needn't have bothered to get a work permit.

3.3. Not have to/ not need to

3.3.1. to talk about the future Eg: I hope I won't have to work late tonight.

4. Suggestions and advice

4.1. Should(n't)/ ought (not) to

4.1.1. Eg: You shouldn't dress casually for work.

4.2. Must

4.2.1. Eg: You must phone me when you get there.

5. Adverbs

5.1. Also/ always/ never/ somtimes/ just/ only

5.1.1. After modal verbs Eg: You must never do that again.

5.2. Really

6. Alternatives

6.1. Certainly/ probably/ possibly/ perhaps/ maybe

6.1.1. to express similar ideas to modal verbs Eg: Jam is probably missing someone.

6.2. It + be + certainly/ likely/ probable/ possible/ impossible

6.2.1. to express ability/ probability and possibility Eg: It is possible that the train will be late.