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TEST PREP da Mind Map: TEST PREP

1. Temperature moderation

2. WATER CYCLE

2.1. GROUND WATER

2.2. ROOT UPTAKE

2.3. EVAPORATION

2.4. PRECIPITATION

2.5. TRANSPIRATION

2.6. CONDENSATION

2.7. RUNOFF

2.8. SEEPAGE

2.9. BIOLOGICAL RECYCLING

3. LAWS OF CONVERSATION OF MATTER

3.1. matter can not be created or destroyed, it can be TRANSFERRED and rearranged into different forms.

3.2. matter can undergoes physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed.

3.3. The cycling of elements makes life possible on earth because it ensures the molecules that build living things are constantly available.

3.4. RESERVOIR- A place where matter, such as water or carbon is stored.

3.5. BIOSPHERE- All life forms on Earth; plants, animals, bacteria, soil.

3.6. HYDROSPHERE- all water on Earth- includes saltwater and fresh water.

3.7. LITHOSPHERE- solid outer section of the Earth.

3.8. ATMOSPHERE- a thin layer of gasses that surround the Earth.

3.9. RESIDENCE TIME- average amount of time that a carbon atom stays in a reservoir.

3.10. PROCESS- the method in which atoms move from one reservoir to another.

4. CARBON CYCLE

4.1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS- plants converts CO2 from the atmosphere or ocean water into sugar in the biosphere.

4.2. PHYSICAL PROCESS- when carbon moves between reservoirs without the help of living organisms.

4.3. biological recycling process- when living organisms are involved in moving the carbon between reservoirs.

4.4. CELLULAR RESPIRATION- process used by plants and animals to create energy. O2 is used to break down sugar CO2 is a byproduct.

4.5. LIMESTONE^^^ in the notes section

4.6. CONSUMPTION- animals obtain their carbon by eating plants and other animals.

4.7. DECOMPOSITION- the process where dead plant and animal material is broken down by bacteria and returned to the soil.

4.8. FOSSIL FUEL FORMATION- when dead matter is buried without oxygen and experience a large amount of pressure and heat for millions of years.

4.9. COAL FORMATION- coal forms from the remains of plants that lived in swamps millions of years ago.

4.10. OIL AND NATURAL GAS FORMATION- these form from the decay of tiny marine organisms that accumulated on the bottom of the ocean millions of years ago. These remains were buried in sediments heated until they became energy- rich carbon based molecules.

4.11. VOLCANIC ACTIVITY- volcanoes melt carbonate rocks such as: limestone and marble and release the carbon into the atmosphere as CO2 gas.

4.12. ABSORPTION- when carbon is pulled from the atmosphere into the ocean. this is the source of ocean acidifcation - excess carbon from the atmosphere is being pulled into the ocean.

4.13. COMBUSTION- humans burn fossil fuels to produce energy and run engines. this adds extra CO2 into the atmosphere.

4.14. DEFORESTATION- humans cut down forests, this slows down how fast carbon can be pulled out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis.

5. NITROGEN CYCLE

5.1. N2

5.2. NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA

5.3. NITROGEN FIXATION

5.4. DECAY/ WASTE

5.5. AMMONIFICATION

5.6. AMMONIA

5.7. NITRATE

5.8. NITRIFICATION

5.9. NITRATE

5.10. ASSIMILATION

5.11. DENITRIFICATION

6. CARBON CYCLE

7. EROSION

7.1. methods

7.2. small scale

7.3. Surface runoff

7.4. Coastal erosion

7.5. Large scale of erosion

8. WEATHERING OF ROCK

8.1. Physical Weathering

8.1.1. water abrasion

8.1.2. Frost Wedging

8.1.3. Plant Action

8.1.4. abrasion

8.1.5. wind abrasion

8.1.6. glacial abrasion

8.1.7. air abrasion

8.2. chemical weathering

8.2.1. carbonation

8.2.2. Oxidation

8.2.3. hydrolysis

8.3. factors effecting the weights of weathering

8.3.1. climate differences

8.3.1.1. cold and humid

8.3.1.2. hot and humid

8.3.2. root action

8.3.3. hot and humid climates

8.3.4. mountains and poles

8.3.5. mineral composition

9. microscope

9.1. compound light microscope

9.2. electron microscope

9.3. eyepiece/ ocular lens

9.4. stage

9.5. objective lens

9.6. light source

9.7. total power of magnification

9.8. resolution

10. metric "SI" system

11. Interdependence

12. biotic

13. Abiotic

14. tolerance curve

15. acclimation

16. conformer

17. regulator

18. Hibernation

19. migration

20. Generalist

21. Specialist

22. Niche

23. produce/ consumer/ detrivore/ decomposer

23.1. producer

23.2. consumer

23.3. decomposer/ detrivore

24. types of consumers

24.1. carnivore

24.2. herbivore

24.3. omnivore

25. Calories

26. food chain

27. food web

28. energy pyramid

29. Energy transfer

30. 90/10 rule

31. Kcal

32. Biochemistry & Life

32.1. Matter

32.2. Mass

32.3. Elements

32.3.1. sub note to elemnts

32.4. Atoms

32.4.1. sub note to Atoms

32.5. Atomic Makeup

32.6. Nucleus

32.6.1. sub note to nucleus

32.7. Electrons

32.7.1. sub note to electrons

32.8. Isotopes

32.9. Compounds

32.10. Covalant bonds

32.11. Iconic bonds

32.12. States of matter

32.12.1. Solid

32.12.2. Liquid

32.12.3. Gas

33. Energy and chemical Reactions

33.1. Chemical reation

33.2. Reactants

33.3. Products

33.4. Bi- directional Arrow

33.5. Metabolism

33.6. Activation energy

33.7. Polarity

33.8. Hydrogen Bonding

33.9. Cohesion & Adhesion

33.9.1. Adhesion

33.10. Solutions

33.11. Concentrations

33.12. Acids and bases

33.13. Ph scale and buffers

34. Discovery of cells

34.1. All living things are made up of one or more cells.

34.2. A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all the process of life.

34.3. Robert Hooke used an early microscope to see cells in thin slices of cork.

34.4. He described what he saw as "Little boxes" and sketched his drawings.

34.5. Dutch trader Anton Van Leeuwenhoek made microscopes that were 10 times as strong as Robert Hooke's instruments.

34.6. In 1673, he was able to observe cells from the genus Spirogyra and Vorticella. This was the first time that observation of movement was seen.

35. Cell Theory

35.1. This is comprised of three essential parts:

35.1.1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

35.1.2. Cells are the basic units of structure and and function in an organism.

35.1.3. cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells.

36. Cellular basis of life

36.1. All living things share 8 basic characteristics

36.1.1. They consist of organized parts

36.1.2. they obtain energy from surroundings

36.1.3. They perform chemical reactions

36.1.4. They change with time

36.1.5. They adapt to their environment

36.1.6. They reproduce

36.1.7. They maintain homeostasis

36.1.8. They share a common history

37. Cell size & shape

37.1. Cells are very diverse in terms of shape, size, and internal organization

37.2. A cells function influences its' physical features.

37.3. A cells shape can be simple or complex depending on the function of the cell

37.4. Some cells can be seen by the human eye, such as human egg cells which are the size of a period dot.

37.5. Cell size is limited to the relationship of the cells surface area-to- volume ratio

37.6. This is important because if a cell were to become too large, it couldn't pass materials into and out of itself.

38. Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic Organisms

39. Basic Parts of a Cell

39.1. All cells have three basic features

39.1.1. All cells have a plasma membrane, which covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier into and out of the cell

39.1.2. The region of the cell within the plasma membrane that includes the fluid, cytoplasm.

39.1.3. The nucleus contains a cells DNA and regulates function. The nuclear matrix is the protein skeleton that maintains it's shape. Certain cells that are simpler, prokaryotes, have a nucleoid instead of a nucleus.

40. Two Basic Types of Cells - Prokaryotes

40.1. prokaryotes are organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles

40.2. They lack a nucleus, but instead have a nucleoid.

40.3. They are further divided into a domain bacteria and Archaea

41. Two Basic Types of Cells - Eukaryotes

41.1. Organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane - bound organelles are called eukaryotes.

41.2. These have organelles which are intracellular bodies that perform a specific function for the cell.

41.3. Eukaryotes are generally much larger than prokaryotes.

42. Cellular Organization

43. Colonial Organization

44. Groups of CELLS took on specific roles as organisms evolved

45. Groups that perform a particular job in an organism are called TISSUES.

46. Groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism are called ORGANS.

47. An ORGAN SYSTEM is a group of organs that accomplish related tasks. The stomach and liver are organs that are part of the digestive system.

48. Organ systems combine to make up an ORGANISM.

49. Plasma Membrane

50. Nucleus

51. Mitochondria

52. Endoplasmic Reticulum

53. Ribosomes

54. Golgi Apparatus

55. Lysosomes

56. Peroxisome

57. Cytoskeleton

58. Cilia & Flagella

59. Centrioles

60. Plant cells

61. Cell wall

62. Central vacuole

63. Plastids

64. Comparing the cells

65. Turgor pressure

65.1. too little water

65.2. too much water

66. Facilitated diffusion

66.1. facilitated diffusion carrier protein

67. Cell membrane pumps

68. sodium potassium pumps

68.1. pump steps

69. electrical gradient

70. movement through vessels

71. active transport - endocytosis

72. active transport pinocytosis

73. active transport phagocytosis

74. active transport exocytosis

75. Obtaining Energy

76. Capturing light energy

77. light and pigments

78. chloroplast pigments

79. converting light to energy

80. light reaction steps

81. replacing electrons in light reactions

82. making ATP in light reactions

83. Calvin cycle

84. Steps of Carbon Fixation

85. Alternative Pathways

86. C4 Pathway

87. CAM Pathway

88. Factors That Effect Photosynthesis

89. Summary of Photosythesis

90. The Krebs Cycle

90.1. Aerobic Respiration

91. Fundamentals of DNA

91.1. -DNA Double Helix

91.2. -Nitrogenous Bases

91.3. Complementary Bases-

91.4. The structure for DNA

91.5. DNA Replication-

91.6. How much DNA?

91.7. Steps of DNA replication

91.8. Replication Fork

91.9. DNA Errors

91.10. DNA nucleotide

92. What is RNA? How's it different from DNA?

93. RNA Structure and Function

94. The Flow of Genetic Information

95. Flow of Genetic Information

96. Problems with protein synthesis

97. Steps of Transcription

98. After Transcription

99. Translation

100. -protein synthesis

101. UNIT 8 SECTION 1

101.1. Chromosome structure-

101.2. Chromosome numbers-

101.3. Diploid and Haploid Cells-

101.4. Cell Division in Prokaryotes-

101.5. Cell Division in Eukaryotes-

101.6. The Cell Cycle-

101.7. Interphase-

101.8. Prophase-

101.9. Metaphase-

101.10. Anaphase-

101.11. Telophase-

101.12. After mitosis cytokinesis-

101.13. When control is lost-

102. UNIT 9 SECTION 1

103. Unit 9 section 2