10 Facts about Memorial Day

Commencez. C'est gratuit
ou s'inscrire avec votre adresse courriel
10 Facts about Memorial Day par Mind Map: 10 Facts about Memorial Day

1. It all began with the Civil War

1.1. In response to the (approx.) 620,000 lives lost on both sides

1.1.1. 1864 Women from Boalsburg, Pennsylvania place flowers on the graves of soldiers lost at the Battle of Gettysburg

1.1.2. 1865 Women from Vicksburg, Mississippi repeat the process of decorating graves of fallen soldiers

1.1.3. 1866 Women from Columbus, Mississippi lay flowers at both Union and Confederate soldier's graves. seen as an act of healing National wounds 219 Civil War veterans march in Carbondale, Illinois to Woodlawn Cemetary Major General John A. Logan gives address Carbondale, Illinois is credited with the first community organized, community-wide Memorial Day observance Waterloo, New York begins holding an annual community service on May 5 wins congressional recognition as the "Birthplace of Memorial Day"

2. General Logan makes it official

2.1. 1868

2.1.1. General Logan issues General Orders No. 11 from the Grand Army of the Republic (a Union veterans organization) on May 5, 1868 Designates May 39, 1868: "for the purpose of strewing with flowers, or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion...." Also includes the indication that the observance should be: "kept up from year to year while a survivor of the war remains to honor the memory of his departed comrades."

3. First known as Decoration Day

3.1. Stemming from the practice of "decorating" graves with flowers, flags, and wreaths

3.2. 1882 sees the first appearance of "Memorial Day"

3.2.1. however.. the term Decoration Day doesn't fall out of favor until after World War II

3.3. Federal Law designates the "official" name of the holiday as Memorial Day in 1967.

4. The holiday is a franchise

4.1. Technically, Memorial Day is part of 11 "federal holidays" created by Congress

4.1.1. these holidays, technically, apply only to Federal Employees and the District of Columbia

4.1.2. Federal Memorial Day, established in 1888, allows Civil War veterans to honor fallen fellow soldiers without receiving a dock in pay.

4.2. Memorial Day holidays are enacted on a state-by-state basis.

4.2.1. New York first officially recognized Memorial Day as a legal holiday in 1873 most northern states had done the same by the 1890s. Many Southern states did not adopt an official recognition until after the first World War. by this time, the term Memorial Day had moved away from it's Civil War underpinnings and grown to include soldiers of all wars.

4.3. 1971:

4.3.1. The Monday Holiday Law moves Memorial Day from May 30 to the last Monday of the month

5. James Garfield's finest hour

5.1. May 30, 1868

5.1.1. President Ulysses S. Grant presides over first ever Memorial Day ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery Historical tidbit: Prior to becoming the National Cemetery, Arlington National Cemetery was Confederate General Robert E. Lee's plantation

5.1.2. The principal speaker at the event was future president James A. Garfield "I am oppressed with a sense of the impropriety of uttering words on this occasion." "If silence is ever golden, it must be beside the graves of fifteen-thousand men, whose lives were more significant than speech, and whose death was a poem the music of which can never be sung."

6. The Tomb of the Known Soldier

6.1. November 11, 1921

6.1.1. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is established at Arlington National Cemetery "Here rests in honored glory an American soldier known but to God."

6.2. Memorial Day 1958

6.2.1. remains of unknown soliders from World War II and the Korean War are added to the tomb

6.3. November 28, 1984

6.3.1. Six bones of a Vietnam War solider are interned in the tomb

6.4. 1998

6.4.1. Sparked by a CBS News investigation, the defense department removes the bones of the Vietnam War solider for DNA testing Solider is Air Force pilot Lr. Michael Joseph Blassie The New York Times reports: "The CBS investigation suggested that the military review board that had changed the designation on Lt. Blassie's remains to 'unknown' did so under pressure from veterans' groups to honor a casualty from the Vietnam War." Blassie is now buried in St. Louis, Missouri and his crypt at Arlington remains permanently empty.

7. Rolling Thunder approaches Washington

7.1. Memorial Day 1988

7.1.1. 2,500 motorcyclists descended on Washington, D.C. resulting in the first Rolling Thunder rally

7.1.2. The rally seeks to highlight Vietnam War soldiers that are still Missing In Action or are war prisoners

7.2. 2002

7.2.1. Organizers estimate that the rally participation has grown to over 300,000 bikers, many of them veterans.

7.3. 2005

7.3.1. Organizers estimate that participation has surpassed 500,000 participants

8. Customs included

8.1. Logan's General Orders No. 11 stated:

8.1.1. "in this observance no form of ceremony is prescribed,"

8.2. However..

8.3. Modern observance of the holiday dicates

8.3.1. The Flag The Flag should fly at half staff until noon After noon, the Flag should be restored to it's zenith, and lowered only at sunset

8.3.2. The Ceremony Taps is played at all military funerals and memorial services Historical Tidbit: Taps originated in 1862, when Union General Dan Butterfield, "grew tired of the 'lights out' call sounded at the end of each day," according to The Washington Post. A battery commander first ordered the playing of Taps in substitute for the traditional 3 volley firing of rifles over the grave. The Reason?

8.3.3. The Red Poppy "In Flanders Fields," by John McRae World War I poem 1915 Moina Michael begins campaign to make the poppy a symbol of tribute to veterans and for "Keeping the faith will all who died." The sale of these poppies has evolved to help support the work of the VFW

9. Grey Memorial Day

9.1. Several Southern States carry on the tradition of remembering fallen Confederate soliders

9.1.1. Confederate Memorial Day Alabama 4th Monday in April Georgia April 26 Louisiana June 3 Mississippi last Monday in April North Carolina May 10 South Carolina May 10 Virginia last Monday in May Tennessee Confederate Decoration Day June 3 Texas Confederate Heroes Day January 19

10. Something New, Something Old

10.1. Although the holiday has it's roots in remembering those that died in Combat, it's become a weekend for much more

10.1.1. May 30, 1911 The first Indianapolis 500 motor race is held Instigated by Indianapolis business man Carl Fisher Ray Harroun was the first winner

10.1.2. May 30, 1922 The Lincoln Memorial was dedicated Supreme Court Justice (and former President) William H. Taft dedicated the monument In attendance:

10.1.3. 2000 Congress established the "National Moment of Remembrance" Requests of individuals a pause for one minute at 3 p.m., as an act of national unity.