Overview of Assessment Methods and Applications for Secondary Level Visual Arts

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Overview of Assessment Methods and Applications for Secondary Level Visual Arts par Mind Map: Overview of Assessment Methods and Applications for Secondary Level Visual Arts

1. diagnostic

1.1. Definition & Purpose

1.1.1. Like formative assessment, diagnostic assessment is intended to improve the learner’s experience and their level of achievement. However, diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards. It assesses what the learner already knows and/or the nature of difficulties that the learner might have, which, if undiagnosed, might limit their engagement in new learning. It is often used before teaching or when a problem arises.

1.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

1.2.1. helps teachers identify their students' current knowledge, skill sets, and capabilities, clarifies any misconceptions before teaching takes places, knowing student strengths and weaknesses helps in lesson planning

1.2.2. pretests can cause anxiety in students who aren't sure of the material, interviews can be time consuming

1.3. Visual Art

1.3.1. A dangerous assumption is that students enrolled in art at the secondary level all have the foundational spiraled understanding from previous courses. I do NOT anticipate this to be a truth. At the beginning of the semester as well as various projects, I may use a survey or quiz based mobile App to assess student and class levels of readiness.

1.4. Design-of learning

1.4.1. This application will be used to evaluate what the students know. The technology can also serve as a tool for students to learn from with a quiz that indicates the correct answer on the screen.

2. summative

2.1. Definition & Purpose

2.1.1. Summative assessment demonstrates the extent of a learner's success in meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or program, and which contributes to the final mark given for the module. It is normally, though not always, used at the end of a unit of teaching. Summative assessment is used to quantify achievement, to reward achievement, to provide data for selection (to the next stage in education or to employment). For all these reasons the validity and reliability of summative assessment are of the greatest importance. Summative assessment can provide information that has formative/diagnostic value.

2.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

2.2.1. provides motivation for students to study and pay attention in class, gives great insight to teachers

2.2.2. not fun for teachers to grade or students to take, students get nervous, teachers performance is too closely linked to results and they may pander

2.3. Visual Art

2.3.1. One example of a 12th grade arts standard is to understand how the role of the artist has changed over time. Based on research checklists and design rubrics students will storyboard the history from Ancient times to the Information age either digitally or by hand. Among other components, they will be graded on accuracy of historical facts.

2.4. Design-of learning

2.4.1. In this example students will be graded on a demonstration of what they have learned. The previous steps will be formatively assessed and this final project reflects mastery of the learning aim.

3. high-stakes

3.1. Definition & Purpose

3.1.1. Typically standardized tests used for the purposes of accountability—i.e., any attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. In general, “high stakes” means that important decisions about students, teachers, schools, or districts are based on the scores students achieve on a high-stakes test, and either punishments (sanctions, penalties, reduced funding, negative publicity, not being promoted to the next grade, not being allowed to graduate) or accolades (awards, public celebration, positive publicity, bonuses, grade promotion, diplomas) result from those scores.

3.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

3.2.1. results can be used to help teachers create a learning plan based on student needs, testing and frequent practice tests can help kids improve their test-taking abilities over time

3.2.2. teachers often feel compelled to "teach to the test," pressure on students and teachers, the pressure is not constructive,

3.3. Visual Art

3.3.1. The only high-stakes exams I plan to give are those mandated by the school system or government. There are however high-stakes portfolios for AP students and/or those wishing to continue arts education at the academic level.

3.4. Design-for learning

3.4.1. The rationale for using a high-stakes portfolio assessment is to motivate the student and guide them through revisions to create a professionally polished product.

4. formative

4.1. Definition & Purpose

4.1.1. Formative assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning. It does not contribute to the final mark given for the module; instead it contributes to learning through providing feedback. It should indicate what is good about a piece of work and why this is good; it should also indicate what is not so good and how the work could be improved. Effective formative feedback will affect what the student and the teacher does next.

4.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

4.2.1. less stress, more feedback for learning, early intervention, less re-teaching, detaches the thinking that the student must get everything right

4.2.2. teachers that may lack training on how to use formative assessments successfully, lack of time to properly assess during lesson

4.3. Visual Art

4.3.1. Formative assessment in the art classroom is essential. The function of continual refinement of ones work is dependent upon feedback. One example that I will utilize daily is observation and conversation.

4.4. Design-for learning

4.4.1. With this example observation and conversation are used to assess student understanding throughout the progression of each and every project.

5. performance based

5.1. Definition & Purpose

5.1.1. Typically require students to complete a complex task, such as a writing assignment, science experiment, speech, presentation, performance, or long-term project, for example. Educators will often use collaboratively developed common assessments, scoring guides, rubrics, and other methods to evaluate whether the work produced by students shows that they have learned what they were expected to learn.

5.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

5.2.1. can be used to assess from multiple perspectives, can be used to assess transfer of skills and integration of content, engages student in active learning, promotes creativity

5.2.2. time consuming, must be carefully designed, ratings can be subjective

5.3. Visual Art

5.3.1. One example of the application of performance assessment in visual arts is to include the element of 'real world' work. A student designed exhibition of their work within the school or community lends itself to demonstrating understanding of a number of cross disciplinary skills as well as interdisciplinary considerations.

5.3.2. Design-of learning With this particular example I would use performance assessment as an evaluation of what students have learned about the components necessary for successful organization and implementation of exhibitions.

6. portfolio

6.1. Definition & Purpose

6.1.1. "Collections of academic work—for example, assignments, lab results, writing samples, speeches, student-created films, or art projects—that are compiled by students and assessed by teachers in consistent ways. Portfolio-based assessments are often used to evaluate a “body of knowledge”—i.e., the acquisition of diverse knowledge and skills over a period of time."

6.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

6.2.1. multiple components of the curriculum can be assessed, highlights student strengths, samples more accurate than test scores, review and evaluation provide continual feedback opportunities

6.2.2. time consuming, challenging to convert into meaningful data, content may vary widely

6.3. Visual Art

6.3.1. Due to the project-based nature of visual arts all students will be required to submit a portfolio of work at the end of the term. (There are a number of ways to utilize portfolios this is one example.)

6.4. Design-of learning

6.4.1. In this particular example an end of term portfolio will be submitted to assess the body of work as a whole.

7. authentic

7.1. Definition & Purpose

7.1.1. 'Authentic' or work-integrated assessment is an assessment where the tasks and conditions are more closely aligned to what you would experience within employment. This form of assessment is designed to develop students skills and competencies alongside academic development.

7.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

7.2.1. encourages collaborative work, promotes creativity, focuses on analytical skills and the integration of knowledge, emphasizes integration of learning over time

7.2.2. difficult to coordinate with mandatory educational standards, unique nature may be unfamiliar to students, subjective nature of grading may lead to bias

7.3. Visual Art

7.3.1. Ninth grade students create are graphic designers that have been asked to contribute to a leading national magazine that highlights international students. They will create a collage that represents them, or "sells" them in any way that they see fit. This could be a collage celebrating achievements, dreams, character etc.

7.4. Design-for learning

7.4.1. This is an introductory lesson where students attempt exploring layout and balance and implement good design practices into their work. They will be assessed via rubric to help them refine their work for further stages of mastery in the unit.

8. self-assessment

8.1. Definition & Purpose

8.1.1. Analyzing and making decisions about one's own performance or abilities. The focus is on the ability of the students to understand both learning intentions and success criteria. Use these criteria to judge what they have learnt and what they still need to learn. Reflect on the learning process to ascertain how they learn best. Set learning targets based on what they still need to learn and manage the organization of their learning.

8.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

8.2.1. encourages student involvement and responsibility, encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work, focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills

8.2.2. self evaluation has a risk of being perceived as a process of presenting inflated grades and being unreliable, students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment

8.3. Visual Art

8.3.1. Students write reflections in their process journal to evaluate how well they met the criteria, what they feel they were successful with and what areas they would improve upon in relation to design projects.

8.4. Design-for learning

8.4.1. This element of self-assessment helps students foster analytical and evaluation skills that pertain to their output and contribution.

9. peer-assessment

9.1. Definition & Purpose

9.1.1. Peer assessment is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher's benchmarks. The practice is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills.

9.2. Advantages & Disadvantages

9.2.1. encourages student involvement and responsibility, focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills, provides more relevant feedback to students as it is generated by their peers

9.2.2. students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark, students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment, students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers, potential discrimination

9.3. Visual Art

9.3.1. Students collaborate in groups to create a visual product that overviews the role art has played in shaping cultural identity.

9.4. Design-for learning

9.4.1. Students will assess how effectively roles within the group were performed. Groups will assess the final product of other groups based on criteria they generated after the introductory stage of the project. This is designed to promote accountability and involvement as well as democratic practice and evaluation.

10. Citations

10.1. Munoz, R. (December 4, 2014) High Stakes Testing Pros and Cons. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www.education.com/magazine/article/high-stakes-testing-pros-cons/

10.2. Art Junction | Ten Assessment Resources for Art Teachers. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://artjunction.org/ten-assessment-resources-for-art-teachers/

10.3. Assessment Terms and Definitions. (2013). Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www.csun.edu/mike-curb-arts-media-communication/assessment-terms-and-definitions

10.4. Principles of assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2016, from https://www.exeter.ac.uk/staff/development/academic/assessmentandfeedback/principlesofassessment/typesofassessment-definitions/

10.5. P., & Pierola, S. D. (n.d.). What is Diagnostic Assessment? Retrieved April 30, 2016, from https://prezi.com/ektdwrvwczn7/what-is-diagnostic-assessment/

10.6. P., & Caquias, P. (n.d.). Formative & Summative Assessment. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from https://prezi.com/vymo0or0ryaz/formative-summative-assessment/

10.7. Self and peer assessment – advantages and disadvantages. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 30, 2016, from http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/groupwork/docs/SelfPeerAssessment.pdf