Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education par Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. schools as Organizations and teachers professionlization

1.1. The structure of U.S> Education

1.1.1. Govermance , schools are paid for by tax and each state has difference taxes that goes to school most time land taxes are school money.

1.1.2. Most every child goes to school. about 55 million children are enrolled in public high schools , Public schools are diverst in races and cultures

1.1.3. Public schools are open allowing equality to be distributed. Few are forced to exit. Accepting of all walks of life.

1.1.4. Privet schools family must have means to afford

1.2. International comparison

1.2.1. Britain, Education is mostly base on social class

1.2.2. France Heavy testing allows government to pick out gifted and give the education about one third of students go to higher education

1.2.3. Soviet union

1.3. `

2. Curriculum,Pedagogy, and the Transmissions of knowladge

2.1. What do school teach

2.1.1. Traditional curriculum is an objective body of knowledge , examine how knowledge is taught, designed , looks at how effect designed and transmitted to studebt

2.1.2. progressive curriculum idea

3. the philosophy of education and it signifinance for teachers

3.1. pragmatism , hard work pays off , problem>speculative thought>action>results . This method is very much like the scientific method is closely related, a better social order is possible thought education.

3.1.1. goal of education to provide students with the knowledge of how to improve social order. "conjoint, communicated experience" that should function as preparation for life in democratic society. prepares by teaching problem solving skills that can transforms society.

3.1.2. Role of a teacher. teacher is a facilitator. Teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement course of study. Teacher writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implemnt curriculum

3.1.3. Methods of instruction children learns by themselves and in groups. Problem solving, student centered . project method,

4. school as organization and teacher proffessionalization,

4.1. Public school is designed to advances students, Allow students to have common body of knowladge.

4.2. Private schools most times students from affluent family and have a commitment to education. Over the past 50 years more and more people are going to these schools. Very little regulation most are religion based,

4.3. international comparisons

4.3.1. Great Britain before the 19th century all school were privet > State ran schools (LEA) about 30 % of students go to college after high school

4.3.2. France The government controls school right down to the class room level. Education is not the same from the rich as the poor and supposts the ones who are gifted. had a high rate of students that go to college.

4.3.3. Former Soviet Union in 1991 the soviet union collasped . this had an major impact on education. The perpose was to create a new soviet man or woman. these man and woman to become leaders with communist values. Family from higher classes attended school that perpaired them for college. While low incomce famiy school perpair for the work fource.

4.3.4. japan education system is highly competitive. 95 % of students graduate from high school.Education stresses efficiency and effectiveness. Great work ethic . Places high value on quality education and moral.

4.3.5. Germany child are picked at a young age for the job they will do as adults. which is broke into three parts The hauptschuele which are the students who will be doing blue collar jobs. the Realschule is for the students who will be doing white collar jobs lik tech job and the Gymnasiium are the studetnts who will be doing porfessin jobs and educaional jobs. these classes are choosen before middle school. Higher education is only offered to a few students.

4.3.6. Finland has the highest score on the PISA . Only about 15% of people that apply to be teacher get in. Teaching is a highly respected job, with great pay. education does not rely on stander test. smalls classes

4.4. school processes and school culture. school are social organization because they have a defnite population. they have a clearly defined political structure, arising from mode of social interaction characteristics of the school, and influenced by numerours minor processes of interaction. they represent the nexus of compact networks of social relatinships. they have a culture that is definitely their own. school are political change with in a school is hard to do. schools have structures and that is what makes them effective. Conflict happens with change. therefor school reform takes times.

4.5. Teachers, teaching and professionalization teachers should have a good work ethic, they get paid very little and work many hours. Teacher are strong members of the community. Who becomes a teacher? A college degree is a must to be a teacher, also a full certification, and lastly Demonstrable content knowledge in subject they are teaching . The nature of teacher must be orginized and caring hard working. most professional interaction in with the students

4.6. Under qualified teachers teacher must at least have a bachelors degree. and a teaching certificate, sometimes teachers are asked to teach outside their scope and this is where issues happen. if a teacher does not know what they are teaching it is very hard to teach something that you do not know. there is a teacher crises there is not enough teachers , therefore in some places standers have been lowered. so places are so hard up for teacher that it is not required to be certificate. teacher in public school work for the state. there is not a way to market teachers. some may argue and say teaching is not a profession because of the client is who pays teachers.

5. Curriculum,pedagogy and the transmission of knowledge

5.1. what do we teach? curriculum mandated by the state dept. and implemented in an organized manner in schools. traditional approaches view objective body of knowledge transmitted to students. does not look at how curriculum is deisigned but how effective it is . these ideas have changed in time now days curriculum is not only seen as the above but also that curriculum is an organized body of knowledge that represent political, social, and ideological interests. curriculum reflexes the needs of the community.

5.2. the history and philosophy of the curriculum

5.2.1. The developmental curriculum , related to the need and interest of the student rather to the needs of society. student centered curriculum helps meet the needs of each student. school should relate to life , this makes learning easier.

5.2.2. the social meliorist curriculum, rooted in social reconstruction theory. school reform society. school should teach how to think and solve problems. this will help students solve problems in their community, which prepares tomorrows leaders.

5.3. the politics of the curriculum pluralist model argues that the political system of the united states is not controlled by any one group, but are made by many groups, each attempting to excise influence and control. The political elite model argue that small number of powerful groups such rich control decision making .

5.4. the sociology of curriculum .. what is being taught and why.

5.4.1. conflict theorist believe that the role of schools is to reproduce the existing social order a social order that represents the dominant groups in society.

5.4.1.1. conflict theorist believe schools hidden curriculum teaches the atitudes and behaviors required in the workplace . conflict theorist believe schools are based ob capitalist economy. . for exsample . working class children go to working class school which prepare them to be working class. . schools are highly stratified accordeing to social class, and because students from different social class backgrounds lean different things in school., the cultural capital required for membership in dominant groups is not unverally leaned but is acquired bt children whoes family already possess such knowledge.

5.4.2. functionalist believe the role of school is to intergrate children into the existing social order , a social order based on consensus and agreement ,

5.4.2.1. curriculum repersent thr codifcation of knowledge that students become competent members of society . the curriculum should transmits to students the culural heritage required for cohesive social system. . Teaches students how to learn.functionalists believe that schools teach the general values and norms essential to modern society. modern society is one where individuals are reward based on achievement and competence.school teach students to respect differences and base their opinion on knowledge rather than tradition.

5.5. how the curriculum is taught the ability to teach something without the requisite knowledge of the subject matter is equally problenatic thus the relationship between curriculum , the content of education , and pedagogy is an interdependent one, with each beging a necessary but insuffient part of the act of teaching

5.5.1. the philosophy of teachimg .... the mimetic tradition is based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. didactic method, a method that commonly relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication . thus involes the relationship betewwn the teacher aka the knower and the student the learner. . stresses the importance of rational sequencing in the teaching process and assessment of learning process. goals and if students acquired them. focuses on measurable goals and objectives has become a central component of many of many teachers education program .

5.5.2. the transformative tradition the process of teaching involves not just the didactic transfer of infomation but the conversation between teacher and student in such a way that the student becomes an intergral part of the learning process. this involves the use of questioning at the core methodology. all teaching begins with the active participation of the student and results in some form of growth.

6. equality of opportunity and educational outcomes

6.1. calculating Educational and Life Outcome

6.1.1. the upper class in the US is only about 3-1% the lower class also know as the poor is growing at very fast rat. the middle class is getting smaller and smaller and it is getting harder for people to move up the ladder of social mobility.

6.2. Student centerd explanation

6.2.1. Reasearch shows that student from low income and student from high income backgrounds preforms are not the same . higher in comes score higher and lower income score lower

6.3. genetic difference

6.3.1. some research said that smarts is based in genetic like race family has a factor in this.however some say that IQ test are geared towards whites and this is why the gap takes places.

6.4. cultural deprivation theories

6.4.1. the poor have a deprivation

6.4.2. culture because they do not insteal the same values and work ethic as the middle class culture

6.5. cultural difference theories

6.5.1. There are cultural differences between between the classes, sometime student arrive at school without the skills needed to learns. These differences are due to social forces such as poverty, raceism , discrimination and unequal life changes. , understanding the forces will help us break thought these barriers . All there thing effect how students see themselves. sometimes the students feel as if they have to choose between education and their culture .

6.6. school centered explanation

6.6.1. school process are designed to understand unequal educational performances this school centered process focuses on both between and within school processes

6.7. school financing

6.7.1. local taxes fuel local schools , therefor communities with more incomes and bussiness tend to have better school because the have the money to do so, and also access to resources.

6.8. Effective school research

6.8.1. Social change is a must to improve schools. peoples attitudes must change about the poor and other races in order to create a more perfect union. researches have to over come own bias and all look at all aspect in research.

6.9. Between school Differences: Curriculum and pedagogic Practices

6.9.1. school can make a difference in a community , Most low income school teacher is more authoritarian and teacher directed , this give children a model. Most upper class school have a more student lead class rooms. there are many class base differences. Research does not tell use why does these differences take place. What do students respond to? Does Education have to be culturally relevant? high school is dependent on elementary .

6.10. Gender and Schooling

6.10.1. the differences between men and woman are cultural, not biological. and women deserve equality in the public and private sectors. school limit the educational and life chances of women. The social Hierarchy of leadership in the US. women care because we are socialized to do so . Schools often limits the educational opportunities and life changes of women in many in ways, such as girls are socialized differently, men are more likley to be admistrators

6.11. do school report inequality?

6.11.1. with research inequalities in education is exposed. but how do we make the gap smaller ? we learn to kill our own bias and to see the whole picture and to take into account all factors of our students.

7. Educational Reform and School Improvement

7.1. effective teachers

7.1.1. We should teacher our students to value education and that their dreams can become reality. effective teachers make a difference everyday!

7.2. Educational reform from the 1980s to 2012

7.2.1. in the mid 1980 educational reform went from the federal level to the state level. in the 1990s education was reformed at the federal level . Reform is highly bureaucratic

7.3. no child left behind

7.3.1. Bush idea that all students should learn the same, however this was a mess. bush required yearly testing and teachers must have a degree in the content which they are teaching. states have to report schoo by school on the testing and a plan of action must be made to improve.

7.4. race to the top

7.4.1. Obama education policy was to aid to states to close the achievment gap. He gave 4.35 billion dollars to make programs to do so. this helps students get ready for college.

7.5. approaches to reform

7.5.1. the 1st neo liberal educational equality project which stresses the independent power of schools in eliminating the achievement gaps for low income students. 2ed broader bolder approach stresses that schools level reform alone is necessary but insuffcient and that social and community level reforms are necessary.

7.6. school base reform

7.6.1. school chouces , charter school,and tuition vouchers in the 1980 and 1990 students were about to pick what kind of school they wanted to attend

7.6.2. school business parterships business can train students for job in their own inderry

7.6.3. school to work programs this was for students who was not going to college

7.6.4. privatization student loan company make profit of education

7.6.5. school to work program

7.7. teachers education

7.7.1. teachers should be highly competent and should be reocrgazed as a profession. teachers should be seekers of knowladge

7.8. Societal , community , economic and political reform

7.8.1. state intvention and mayoal control in local school districts . The educational system in the USA holds teacher and school accountable to obtain standers set and the local and regional and the state levels. Some systems give reward for excelling above the standers. Some states if the school is not preforming at the stander the state will take over. When this happens the states goal is to improve the school. This is unfair because the state most of the time is not able to reach their goal. Mayoal control is aimed at get urban school in order.

7.9. School Finance Reform

7.9.1. Some states equal education is a right and in some states it is not a right . some state pre k and early education is a right. There has been a few court cases that chalanged what equal is and held schools accountable to the law.

7.9.1.1. Full Service and community schools. dryfoo model is a community base approach with centers that improve at risk areas.

7.9.1.2. Harlem Childerens zone

7.10. Connecting school, community and societal reforms

7.10.1. Leadership as the driver for change. Parent community ties professional capacity student sentered learning climate insrtuctional guidance

7.11. A therory of educational problems and reforms

7.11.1. School that are small and personalized in size a unified course of study for all students a focus of helping young people use their minds well an in depth interdiscipum respect all. active learning student evaluation family involment collaborative choice diversity budget