Men's Mental Health Service Underutilization

A mind map exploring the issue of men's mental health service underutilization.

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Men's Mental Health Service Underutilization par Mind Map: Men's Mental Health Service Underutilization

1. Male role socialisation

1.1. Stigma

1.1.1. Men who represent 'unmasculine' qualities are looked down upon.

1.2. Role of culture

1.2.1. Sport, movies, education, music, religion

1.2.2. Western culture tends to favour traditional masculine qualities as evidenced by male action heroes (Rambo, James Bond, Indiana Jones, superheroes, etc.).

1.3. Traditional masculine qualities

1.3.1. Strength, assertiveness, dominance, courage, lack of emotion, independence, leadership, sexual conquest.

2. Theories around gender differences

2.1. Gender Role Schema Theory

2.1.1. A social learning theory that has subsequent behavioural implications. It contends that our gender roles are learned behaviours as a result of conditioning and modelling by parents and our society.

2.2. Evolutionary Theories

2.2.1. Conceptualises traditional male and female qualities as innate. These theories suggest that the stereotypical qualities were adaptive to survive and therefore were proliferated by human culture and adopted

2.3. Femininity-Masculinity dimensions

2.3.1. Bem Sex Role Inventory

2.3.2. Personal Attributes Questionnaire

2.3.3. Traditional Masculinity-Femininity Scale

2.3.4. Conceptualises masculinity-femininity on a spectrum. People are located along this spectrum with femininity at one pole and masculinity at the other. This shows that people are a synthesis of both 'energy's' and not strictly masculine or feminine in nature.

3. Mental health issues faced by men

3.1. Externalising disorders

3.1.1. Substance use disorders (e.g. alcoholism, opioid dependency)

3.1.2. Conduct disorders Oppositional defiant disorder Antisocial personality disorder Can lead to other issues such as domestic violence against women and children.

3.1.3. ADHD

3.2. Anxiety

3.3. Depression

3.3.1. Leads to higher rates of completed suicides.

3.4. Men and women have different emotion regulation strategies leading to difference in prevalence of certain psychopathology.

4. Forms of treatment

4.1. Traditional psychotherapy

4.1.1. Self-disclosure

4.1.2. Client therapist relationship

4.2. Group-based therapy

4.2.1. Focuses on providing men with a community of other men and helping them through their problems.

4.2.2. An example of the effectiveness of group-based therapies is Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous.

4.3. Workshops, seminars, education

4.3.1. Men tend to be more problem-focused, whereas women tend to be more emotion-focused. Educational approaches accommodate this and allow men to conceptualise their treatment as them fixing something that's wrong and learning.

4.3.2. Success and prevalence in the self-help community (TED Talks, self-help media and literature)

4.4. Mentor-mentee relationship

4.4.1. A social learning approach that uses a close dyadic bond to foster healthy masculinity and mental health outcomes.