Old English Vocabulary

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Old English Vocabulary par Mind Map: Old English Vocabulary

1. Etymology - is the study of the history of words.

1.1. Etymology layers of the OE Vocabulary:

1.2. 1) Native words

1.3. Common Indo-European

1.3.1. 1. Common IE layer

1.3.2. Modern English words of the IE origin are: mother, father, brother, sister, night, moon, tree, nail, beard, do, be, my, that, new, etc.

1.3.3. Natural phenomena, plants and animals

1.3.4. Names of parts of human body

1.3.5. Verbs denoting the basic activities of man

1.3.6. Adjectives indicating the most essential qualities (good, bad, hot, cold)

1.3.7. Personal and demonstrative pronouns and most numerals

1.4. Common Germanic

1.4.1. eorђe - earth

1.4.2. Words connected with:

1.4.3. Nature

1.4.4. With see (the layer of the youngest words: when the Angles, Saxons and Jutes came to British Isles)

1.4.5. Every day life

1.5. Some words of this layer are not shared by all the groups of the IE family. The common Germanic layer includes words which are shared by most Germanic languages. Semantically these words are connected with nature, with the sea and everyday life. The examples of this layer OE hand, sand, eorþe (earth), sin¯an (sing), ¯rēne (green), fox, macian (make).

1.6. Specifically OE

1.6.1. e.g. clipian – NE call

1.7. 2) Borrowings

1.8. Latin

1.9. Greek

2. Ways of enlarging of OE vocabulary

2.1. Internal ways of enlarging of the OE vocabulary.

2.1.1. Resoursfulness When our means are limited we often develop unusual resourcefulness in utilizing those means to the full. Such resourcefulness is characteristic of Old English. The language in this stage shows great flexibility, a capacity for bending old words to new uses. By means of prefixes and suffixes a single root is made to yield a variety of derivatives, and the range of these is greatly extended by the ease with which compounds are formed. The method can be made clear by an illustration. The word mǀd, which is our word mood (a mental state), meant in Old English ‘heart’, ‘mind’, ‘spirit’, and hence ‘boldness’ or ‘courage’, sometimes ‘pride’ or ‘haughtiness’. From it, by the addition of a common adjective ending, was formed the adjective mǀdig with a similar range of meanings (spirited, bold, high-minded, arrogant, stiff-necked), and by means of further endings the adjective mǀdiglic ‘magnanimous’, the adverb mǀdiglƯce ‘boldly’

2.1.2. Word-Composition Self-explaining compounds = compounds of two native words self-evident in meaning e.g. Mod E greenhouse, railway, sewing machine, one-way street e.g. OE lēohtfæt ‘lamp’ (lēoht light+ fǽt vessel), medu-heall ‘mead-hall’, doegred ‘dawn’ (day-red) Kennings = a unique type of OE compounds, metaphorical constructions used in poetic vocabulary OE literature = Beowulf e.g. hronrad - whale road = Mod E sea

2.1.3. the ways and structural types of word-composition in OE. Word-composition in OE was performed in two ways:  joining 2 words without any ending e.g. folc( NE people)+toӡa (to bring up) = folctoӡa (NE leader of the people)  joining 2words when one of them stood in some oblique case (all cases except Nom) e.g. dæӡ (NE day)+ eaӡe (NE eye)= daӡes-eaӡe (daisy)

2.1.4. Word derivation Derived words in OE were built with the help of: - Suffixes - Prefixes affixes - Sound interchange - Word stress Suffixation  Suffixes of nouns:  Suffixes of adjective:  By adding another suffix –e- the adjective was turned into an adverb:  Verb suffixes were few and non-productive: Prefixation Prefixes were widely used with verbs. e.g. OE settan (to set) 1. āsettan ‘place’ 2. besettan ‘appoint’, 3. forsettan ‘obstruct’ 4. foresettan ‘place before’, 5. gesettan ‘people’, ‘garrison’, 6. ofsettan ‘afflict’, 7. onsettan ‘oppress’, 8. tōsettan ‘dispose’, 9. unsettan ‘put down’, wiþsettan ‘resist’. 3. Sound interchanges There can be vowel and consonant interchanges. e.g. Sprecan (v) – spræce (n) Can be used with suffixation and prefixation 4. Word stress The verb had unaccented prefixes while the corresponding nouns had stressed prefixes

2.1.5. - Derivation (the usage suffixes and prefixes to the root in order to form a word) adj mōdig = spirited, bold, high-minded, arrogant, stiff-necked,

2.2. External ways of enlarging of the OE vocabulary.

2.2.1. A loanword (borrowing) – a word borrowed from one language and incorporated into another Intercultural contacts > Borrowings Borrowing to OE: 1) Celtic 2) Latin Borrowed word = 5% of the OE Vocabulary)

2.2.2. Celtic influence on the English vocabulary Borrowings from Celtic = places names: 1) The names of the British Kingdoms of Kent, Deira and Bernicia = the names of Celtic tribes Hybrids: Celtic components + Germanic components e.g. Celtic + Germanic York-shire Canter-bury 2) The names of rivers The Thames = a Celtic river name Celtic words for river or water are preserved in the names Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk, Dover, Wye 3) The names of hills Celtic words ‘hill’ = cf. Welsh bar ‘top’, summit cf. Welsh bre ‘hill’ are found in place-names like Barr, Bredon and others 4) Common nouns e.g. Binn – NE bin Cradol – NE cradle Dun – NE dark coloured Dry – NE magician 2. Latin

2.3. Latin influence on the English vocabulary

2.3.1. 1. When the Germanic tribes lived on the continent (before the 5th cen. AD)

2.3.2. Trade relations with the Roman empire > Germanic tribes learned a number of products that had been unknown to them

2.3.3. cēap (cheap) and mangian (to trade) mangere (monger), mangung (trade, commerce), and mangunghūs (shop)

2.3.4. pund (pound), mydd (bushel), sēam (burden, loan), and mynet (coin)

2.3.5. wīn (wine), must (new wine), eced (vinegar), and flasce (flask, bottle). cylle (L. culleus, leather bottle), cyrfette (L. curcurbita, gourd), and sester (jar, pitcher).

2.3.6. Many of the Latin words, borrowed during this period are still preserved in Modern English, such as: pound, inch, pepper, cheese, wine, apple, pear, plum, etc.

2.3.7. 2. Latin through Celtic Transmission

2.3.8. The second layer of loan Latin words borrowed already on British territory.

2.3.9.  Celtic Ceaster = the Latin castra (camp) = in OE a town or enclosed community.

2.3.10. > English place-names Chester, Colchester, Dorchester, Manchester, Winchester, Lancaster, Doncaster, Gloucester, Worcester, and many others.

2.3.11.  OE port – (L. portus and porta) = NE harbor, gate, town

2.3.12.  OE sræt – (L. strāta via) = NE street

2.3.13.  OE weal – NE wall

2.3.14. 3. The Christianizing of Britain e.g. biscop – NE bishop deofol – NE devil munuc – NE monk scol – NE school maӡister – NE teacher

3. Structure

3.1. Word structure

3.2.  Simple (root words) = a simple stem = a root-morpheme

3.2.1. e.g. OE Stan, land, ӡod – NE stone, land, good

3.3.  Derived words = one root-morpheme + one or more affixes

3.4. e.g. OE be-‘ӡinnan, ‘ӡe-met-inӡ , ‘un-scyld-inӡ –

3.4.1. NE begin, meeting, innocent

3.5.  Compound words = one root-morpheme + one more root-morpheme

3.5.1. e.g. OE Mann-cynn, weall-ӡeat – NE mankind, wall gate

4. Kennings = a unique type of OE compounds, metaphorical constructions used in poetic vocabulary OE literature = Beowulf

5. e.g. hronrad - whale road = Mod E sea