Human Sciences ( Jo, Sam, Aina, Ananya)

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Human Sciences ( Jo, Sam, Aina, Ananya) par Mind Map: Human Sciences ( Jo, Sam, Aina, Ananya)

1. Scope & Application (Jo)

1.1. Biological, Social, and Cultural Aspects of human life

1.2. Central Topics

1.2.1. Human Behaviour

1.2.1.1. Psychology

1.2.1.1.1. Four Main Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict and Control Human Behaviour

1.2.1.2. Economics / Business

1.2.1.3. Sociology

1.2.1.4. Linguistics

1.2.1.5. Social Anthropology

1.2.1.5.1. Development of Human Society and Culture

1.2.2. Genetics

1.2.3. Population Growth / Aging

1.2.4. Ethnic / Cultural Diversity

1.2.5. Human Interaction with the Environment

1.3. Applications

1.3.1. Allows government and businesses to understand human behaviour

1.3.1.1. From this governments and businesses can change how they operate

1.3.1.1.1. For example in economics, governments can figure out what to do in financial crises because of the data they've collected using human sciences.

1.3.2. Can see relationships between changes in society and individual lives

1.3.2.1. e.g the effect of having a single parent on a child

1.3.3. Data can be used in order to change society for the better, by seeing what's wrong with society.

2. Language & Concepts (Aina)

2.1. The language of lying

2.1.1. 10-200 lies a day

2.1.1.1. spent most of our time to try and find ways to detect them

2.1.1.1.1. torture, polygraph test

2.1.1.1.2. We can be fooled with enough preparation

2.1.2. we lie to paint a better picture of ourselves

2.1.2.1. Our conscious mind only controls 5% of our cognitive function with 95% of our function occuring without our awareness

2.1.3. reality monitoring

2.1.3.1. stories based on imagined experiences are qualitatively different than those based on real experiences

2.1.3.1.1. creating false stories takes work and results in a certain language use

2.1.4. linguistic text analysis

2.1.4.1. a technology that has helped identity 4 common patterns in the subconscious language of deception

2.1.4.1.1. 1. liars reference themselves less

2.1.4.1.2. 2. liars tend to be more negative

2.1.4.1.3. 3. liars explain events in simple terms

2.1.4.1.4. 4. liars tend to use longer sentence structures, inserting unnecessary words

2.2. words can be hard to translate

2.2.1. eg. 'you' is often impossible to accurately translate without knowing the context of the sentence

2.2.1.1. 1. how familiar are you with the person you're talking to?

2.2.1.1.1. many cultures have different levels of formality, resulting in a different 'you'

2.2.1.2. 2. Is that person a women or man? Is it one person or many?

2.2.1.2.1. some cultures have a different you for different genders and the number of people

2.2.1.3. In some languages, 'you' is not used in sentences, but implied by the conjugated verbs

2.2.1.4. In other languages, 'you' can be dropped without any hints of gender, number or formality, letting the listener guess through context

2.3. miscommunication

2.3.1. leads to confusion, animosity or misunderstanding

2.3.2. communication is a message that moves directly from one person to another

2.3.3. communication between people is a message sent with feedback being received

2.3.4. humans send and receive messages through our own subjective lenses

2.3.4.1. our perceptual filters shift meaning and interpretation

2.3.4.2. influenced by age, gender, religion, family background, past experiences, ethnicity...

2.3.5. no neutral language as it is always affected by perceptual filters

2.3.6. Avoided through

2.3.6.1. 1. recognizing taht passive hearing and active listenning are not the same

2.3.6.2. 2. listen with eyes, ears and gut

2.3.6.3. 3. take time to undersatnd as you try to be understood

2.3.6.4. 4. be aware of your personal perceptive filters

2.4. algorithms

2.4.1. an algorithm is a set of instructions to solve a problem, step-by-step

2.4.2. For computers as well as humans

2.4.2.1. Everything we do can be interpreted through pseudocode (let n be 0...), just like a computer

2.4.2.1.1. count one-by-one

2.4.2.1.2. optimisation through counting in pairs or threes...

3. Methodology (Ananya)

3.1. Experimental method

3.1.1. The nature of complex real world situations often make it impossible to run controlled experiments

3.1.1.1. Ethical reasons for not conducting controlled experiments as well

3.2. Use of questionnaires, polls

3.3. Direct observation of human behaviour

3.4. Use of reason to construct plausible theory using pre existing knowledge in the field

3.5. Some assumptions of human rationality (economics) and behaviour (psychology)

3.5.1. These assumptions can be falsified (exceptions)

3.6. Use of statistical methods

3.6.1. On what basis to choose things like significance of levels of tests?

3.6.2. How reliable are the statistics we collect?

3.7. Speculation

3.7.1. Imagining and predicting human behaviour based on previous knowledge

3.7.1.1. Predictions are not reliable

3.7.1.1.1. Trends shows the direction in which a variable is moving, but does not provide explanation for cause and effect

3.7.2. Cannot form LAWS in HS because nothing is fixed in the real world

3.7.2.1. Humans are each different and subjective

3.8. Approaches to research in HS

3.8.1. Positivistic Approach

3.8.1.1. Scientific, quantitative method

3.8.1.2. Objective in nature

3.8.1.3. Reproducible experiments

3.8.1.4. Outcome: truths, laws, models, predictions

3.8.2. Interpretivist Approach

3.8.2.1. Process of interpretation, qualitative methods

3.8.2.1.1. Interviews, pictures, video recordings

3.8.2.2. Subjective in nature

3.8.2.3. Context is important

3.8.2.4. Outcome: insight, understanding

3.8.3. Critical Theory

3.8.3.1. Looking for underlying patterns/meaning

3.8.3.2. Outcome: explanatory rather than informative

4. Historical Development (Sam)

4.1. Paradigm Shift

4.1.1. Thomas Kuhn

4.1.1.1. Explains his views about how Science changes over time

4.1.2. Definition

4.1.2.1. Change when an old way of thinking is replace with a new one

4.1.3. Critisized

4.1.3.1. Replaced by the word "turn"

4.2. Turns

4.2.1. Cultural Turn

4.2.1.1. How social sciences and other sciences focus more on culture now

4.2.1.2. Culture

4.2.1.2.1. People want to shape the environment according to their aspirations

4.2.1.2.2. Inherited practices

4.2.1.2.3. Way of giving meaning to life

4.2.1.3. Society as a whole

4.2.2. Linguistic Turn

4.2.2.1. More focussed on the language part

4.2.2.2. Language action

4.2.3. Effects

4.2.3.1. Changes approaches

4.2.3.2. Changes views and ways of thinking

4.2.3.2.1. More ideas come in

4.2.3.3. Can improve relevance of an area to other people

4.3. Types of Psychology

4.3.1. Freudian Psychology

4.3.1.1. Interaction between patient and psychologist

4.3.2. Modern Psychology

4.3.2.1. Evidence based

4.4. Physics and Math with HS

4.4.1. Can help bring concrete understandings to problems seemingly irrelevant to formal sciences

4.4.2. Economics

4.4.2.1. People use maths to understand economic problems

5. Personal Knowledge

5.1. What is the nature of the contribution of individuals you know personally to this area, in terms of your experience?

5.1.1. Contributions to Human Sciences can sometimes be very controversial, as they are not always as factual as some of the Natural Sciences contributions. One example would be the controversy around the idea of pheromones. In psychology, we still don't know if pheromones have an effect on humans. Many studies have supported the existence of pheromones, while many others say the opposite. Whereas in Natural Sciences people mostly agree on theories, for example the theory of evolution, although lacking a lot of empirical evidence, is till believed by a large majority of people. Jo

5.2. What responsibilities rest upon YOU by virtue of YOUR knowledge in this area?

5.3. What are the implications of this area of knowledge in terms of YOUR individual perspective?

5.3.1. Aïna- I find this area interesting because it has everything to do with us, as human beings. It helps us understand ourselves and others through the understanding of their use of language and the different interpretation options that could affect one's view of a situation.

5.4. What assumptions underlie YOUR own approach to this knowledge?

5.4.1. With much of my own knowledge regarding human sciences, e.g economics/ psychology, a lot of theories are susceptible to reductionism, which occasionally can reduce its application to real world people. -Jo

5.5. Consider the WOKs in relation to your experiences, how have these affected what and how you know in this AOK?

5.5.1. Memory has affected my experience with HS. Through my past experiences, I can determine patterns in human behaviour and anticipate their actions- Ananya

5.5.2. Faith plays a very important part in my understanding of HS. There are many human behaviours in the bible which is generalised to everyone. For example, there is the idea of sinning, and how all humans sin and it's an unavoidable act. -Sam