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Fungi par Mind Map: Fungi

1. Sporulation Structures

1.1. Conidia

1.1.1. Conidiophores

1.2. Sporangiospores

1.2.1. Sporangium

1.2.2. Sac-like

2. Hydroxystilbamidine

3. General

3.1. Characterisitcs

3.1.1. Skin test

3.1.1.1. Indicate exposure not active disease

3.1.2. No person to person transmission

3.1.3. Dimorphic fungi

3.2. Transmission

3.2.1. Inhalation of spores

3.2.2. Entry wounds

3.3. Treatment

3.3.1. Amphotericin B

3.3.2. Flucytosine

3.4. Found in soil

3.4.1. Pigeon dropping

4. Pathogenic capabilities

5. Yeast

5.1. Single cell organism

5.2. Cell Shape

5.2.1. Oval

5.2.2. Spherical

5.3. Simple budding

5.3.1. Allows for fermentation

5.3.1.1. Alcohol

5.3.1.2. Gases

5.3.1.3. Acids

5.4. Colonies

5.4.1. Moist

5.4.2. Mucoid

5.4.3. Dull & Shiny

5.5. Grow @ 37C

6. Mold

6.1. Grow @ 25C

6.2. Multicellular organism

6.3. Filamentous form

6.3.1. Fuzzy growth

6.3.2. Velvety growth

6.4. Reproduce

6.4.1. Spores

6.4.2. Conidia

6.5. Colorful cells

7. Dimorphism

7.1. Exist as a yeast and mold

8. Mycosis

8.1. Fungal Infection

8.2. Abnormality

9. Eukaryotic organism

9.1. Membrane bound organelles

10. Saprophytic

10.1. Environmental decomposers

10.1.1. Feed on dead organic matter

11. Transmission

11.1. Inhale spores

11.2. Environmental exposure

11.3. Tissue trauma (puncture)

11.4. Person to person

11.4.1. Extremely rare

12. Clinical grouping

12.1. Cutaneous mycoses

12.1.1. Skin, hair, nails

12.1.2. Keratin/protein

12.1.3. Species

12.1.3.1. Epidermaphyton

12.1.3.1.1. No microconidia

12.1.3.1.2. Cluster of macroconidia

12.1.3.2. Microsporan

12.1.3.3. Trichophyton

12.1.3.4. Cause

12.1.3.4.1. Tinea (ringworms)

12.2. Idphor

12.3. Subcutaneous mycoses

12.3.1. Usually enter by trauma

12.3.2. Can be serious if not treated

12.3.3. Species

12.3.3.1. Sporothrix schenchkii

12.3.3.1.1. Disease

12.3.3.2. Bacteria like

12.3.3.2.1. Actinomyces

12.3.3.2.2. Nocardia

12.3.3.2.3. Disease

12.4. Many start with respiratory complication

12.5. Blastomycosis dermatidis

12.5.1. Blastomycosis

12.5.1.1. Found central and southeastern US

12.5.1.2. Diagnostic

12.5.1.2.1. X-ray

12.5.1.2.2. Acid fast

12.5.1.3. Inhalation of spores

12.5.1.3.1. Skin penetration

12.5.1.3.2. Air

12.5.1.4. Self-limiting

12.5.1.5. Dimorphic fungi

12.5.1.6. Morphology

12.5.1.7. Mimic TB

12.5.1.7.1. Wide base budding yeast cells

12.6. Systemic mycoses

12.6.1. Usually affect only 1% of healthy bodies

12.6.2. Affects multiple systems

12.6.3. Tissues, muscle, and bone

12.6.4. Most serious in respiratory & nervous system

12.6.5. Species

12.6.5.1. Coccidioides immitis

12.6.5.1.1. Coccidioidomycosis

12.6.5.2. Histoplasm capsulatum

12.6.5.2.1. Self-limiting

12.6.5.2.2. Histoplasmosis

12.6.5.3. Cryptococcus neoformans

12.6.5.3.1. Cryptococcosis

12.7. Classified by level of involvement in bodies

12.8. Oppotunistic mycoses

12.8.1. Does not ordinarily cause disease but if immunocompromised, disease can rise

12.8.1.1. Usually seen when patients are on antibotics

12.8.2. Aseptic hyphae

12.8.3. Species

12.8.3.1. Rapid growers

12.8.3.1.1. Rhizopus

12.8.3.1.2. Mucor

12.8.3.1.3. Absidia species

12.8.3.1.4. Causes

12.8.3.2. Candida

12.8.3.2.1. Candidiasis

12.8.3.3. Aspergillus

12.8.3.3.1. Aspergillosis

13. Fungal Identification

13.1. Clinical information

13.1.1. Site location

13.1.2. Appearance of lesion

13.1.3. Geographic location

13.1.4. Travel history

13.2. Culture characteristics

13.2.1. Surface texture

13.2.2. Pigmentation

13.3. Microscopic evaluation

13.3.1. Elements

13.3.1.1. Conidia

13.3.1.1.1. Size

13.3.1.1.2. Free flowing spores or seeds of mold

13.3.1.2. Hyphae

13.3.1.2.1. Individual filaments of a mold

13.3.1.2.2. Mycelium/Mycelia

13.3.1.2.3. Growth on substrate

13.3.1.2.4. Type

14. Cultures

14.1. Skin scrapings

14.2. Specimens

14.2.1. Hair

14.2.2. Nails

14.2.3. Sputum

14.2.4. Cerebrospinal fluid

14.2.5. Drainage from lesions

14.3. Diagnostic Tools

14.3.1. Sabouraud's agar

14.3.1.1. Selective for fungal agents

14.3.1.2. High sugar and low pH (acidic environment)

14.3.1.3. Antibiotics- inhibit bacterial growth

14.3.2. Fungal smear

14.3.2.1. KOH Prep

14.3.2.1.1. 10% Potassium hydroxide

14.3.2.2. Lactophenol cotton blue

14.3.2.2.1. Tape & dye, microscopic ID