Intercultural Communication

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Intercultural Communication par Mind Map: Intercultural Communication

1. Greeting

1.1. Thailand

1.1.1. Put your hands in front of your chest and say "sa-waii-dii-khrap" it means "hello" Good morning : a-run sa-wat Good afternoon : thi-waa sa-wat Good evening : saa-yan sa-wat Good night : raa-dtrii sa-wat

1.2. South Korea

1.2.1. In Korean culture we need to bow in greeting, especially when we great the eldery Hello : annyeonghaseyeo Thank You : kam sa ham ni da Good morning : Joeun Achimieyo Good night : annyeonghi jumuseyo Good bye : annyeonghigasipsio Nice to meet you : pangapseum nida How are you : jal jinaesseoyo

1.3. Japan

1.3.1. Japanese greeting custom has similiarity with the korean's But the bow is deeper in Japanese culture. Hallo. : Konichiwa Good morning : ohayou gozaimasu Good evening : Konbanwa Goodbye. : sayounara Good night. : oyasuminasi Thank you : arigatou gozaimasu Sorry :sumimasen

1.4. Malaysia

1.4.1. Handshakes are appropriate only amongst men; only use your right hand.

1.4.2. •Women should greet men with a nod and smile; while greeting women, •men may bow while placing their hand on their heart.

1.4.3. •Good Morning: Selamat pagi (sounds like "pag-ee") •Good Afternoon: Selamat Tengah hari (sounds like "teen-gah har-ee") •Good Afternoon/Evening: Selamat Petang (sounds like "puh-tong") •Good Night: Selamat Malam (sounds like "mah-lahm")

1.5. Indonesia

1.5.1. •In general, a handshake is the most common way. •Most Indonesians would not hug except for family members. •A social cheek-to-cheek (“muah-muah”) is popular among women, •but never between men and women (except for close family members) or among men.

1.5.2. •How are you? :Apa kabar? •Good Morning: Selamat pagi •Good Afternoon: Selamat Sore •Good Night: Selamat Malam

1.6. Singapore

1.6.1. •Singaporeans generally shake their hands when they are first introduced to a person. •Men and women usually greet each other with a handshake. •When making introductions for the first time and in always use the person's title and family or personal name.

1.6.2. Hello - Ni hao (Nee how) How are you? - Ni hao ma? (Nee how ma) Very good - Hen hao (hun hao) My name is. . . - Wo de mingzi shi. . . ... Please - qing (ching) Excuse me - Duì bú qi (dweì bú chi) Thank you - Xiè xiè (shièh shièh) Do you speak English - Ni huì jiang Yingyu ma? (Nee huei jeeang Ying you ma.)

1.7. Laos

1.7.1. •A formal greeting for most Lao people is the “Nop” (joining one’s hands together in a praying gesture at chin level). •Handshakes are also commonly used among male friends and with foreign visitors. •The Lao word for “hello” is “sabai dee”, say it with smile and you’ll be well received. •Feet are low. Placing them on furniture or pointing at things or people with your feet is not acceptable.

1.7.2. Hello : sabai dee

1.8. England (Europe)

1.8.1. A handshake is the most common form of greeting among the English and British people and is customary when you are introduced to somebody new.

1.8.2. •“Hello!” • “ Good morning.” •“ Good afternoon.” •“ Good evening.” • “ It's nice to meet you.” ••“It's a pleasure to meet you.” (These last two only work when you are meeting someone for the first time.)

1.9. Vietnam

1.9.1. •The Vietnamese are accustomed to shaking hands. •Elders should be greeted especially respectfully.

1.9.2. •Use "xin chào"(sin chow) as a general greeting. ... •Say "chào bạn" (chow bahn) if you're speaking to a friend. ... •Add formal pronouns when speaking to older people. ... •Switch to "chào em" (chow ehm) for younger people and children. ... •Use "á lô" (ah-loh) to answer the phone.

1.10. China

1.10.1. •Shake hands upon meeting.  •Chinese may nod or bow instead of shaking hands, •although shaking hands has become increasingly common.

1.10.2. Hello •nǐ hǎo; The standard "hello" greeting. •Literally means "you good.

1.11. Phillipine

1.11.1. •Among women, a smile and a hand wave is the usual greeting. •Close friends and family may accompany a handshake with a pat on the back. 

1.11.2. people greeteach other by saying, 'kumusta kayo' ('how are you?' in Tagalog).

1.12. India

1.12.1. •greeting with 'namaste' (na-mas-TAY) (placing both hands together with a slight bow) is appreciated and shows respect for Indian customs. •Men shake hands with men when meeting or leaving. •Men do not touch women when meeting orgreeting.

1.12.2. • “Namaste” (‘I greet the divine within you’) (Hindus) •“Kem cho”, (‘How are you?’) •“Salaam” (Muslim)

1.13. Cambodia

1.13.1. We need to place both palms together like a lotus in front of our chest. Common formal greeting : Sampeah

1.14. Myanmar

1.14.1. Traditional greeting in Myanmar is bow whilst placing both hands on stomach. Common formal greeting : Min-ga-la-ba

1.15. Turkey

1.15.1. Gunaydin : Good Morning Marhaba/Selam: Hello Iyi aksamlar : Good Evening Iyi gunler : Good day

1.16. Timor Leste

1.16.1. •Shake hands

1.16.2. •Ksolok Bodik Mai  – Welcome •Bondia / Dader diak – Good morning (from Portuguese) •Botarde / Lorokraik diak – Good afternoon (from Portuguese “Boa tarde”) •Bonoite / Kalan diak – Good evening/good night (from Portuguese “Boa noite”) •Atelogu – See you later Sorti diak ba loron ohin – Have a nice day •Hau ba lai / Ate amanyá – Goodbye

1.17. Brunei Darussalam

1.17.1. •Ethnic Malay men shake hands with one another, •but men and women do not traditionally shake hands

1.17.2. •"Assalamualaikum”. •But generally, we would just say “Hi!”

1.18. United Arab Emirates

1.18.1. Men should not try to shake women hand unless she puts out her hand first and definitely avoid embraces

1.18.2. Marhaba: (Hello) 

2. Verba

2.1. Thailand

2.1.1. Indirect Communication->often smile and nod

2.1.2. Refusals->avoid giving flat-out refusals.

2.1.3. Laughter->"Land of Smiles"

2.1.4. Speech Style->Speak louder and faster.

2.1.5. Silence->Sign of respect, agreement, or disagreement and as a beautiful form of speech.

2.1.6. Honorifics->Stating the first name preceded by "khun","phi" "nong".

2.1.7. Humour->to make the conversations lighthearted.

2.1.8. Swearing->generally not used in conversation.

2.2. South Korea

2.2.1. Indirect Communication->Attentive to a speaker's posture, expression and tone voice to draw meaning.

2.2.2. Refusals->Frequently paused and apologized before refusing.

2.2.3. Laughter->Sometimes used in awkward situations.

2.2.4. Speech Style->Generally speak quite firmly and use less gestures and facial expressions.

2.2.5. Silence->It reflects politeness and respect.

2.2.6. Honorifics->added "shi" to someone names.

2.2.7. Humour->Koreans do not appreciate or are not familiar with sarcastic styles of humour.

2.2.8. Swearing->Korean culture is filled with curse words and expressions.

2.3. Japan

2.3.1. Indirect Communication->They rely less on words to convey context and are more attentive to the posture, expression and tone of voice of the speaker.

2.3.2. Refusals->Japanese avoid giving a flat "no" or negative response.

2.3.3. Laughter->People cover their mouth when giggle.

2.3.4. Speech Style->manifested grammarically and semantically.

2.3.5. Silence->linked to social discretion, the level of intimacy in a relationship.

2.3.6. Honorifics->by add "san"

2.3.7. Humour->They prefer to call themselves serious people.

2.3.8. Swearing->Japanese doesn't really have much in the way curse words.

2.4. Malaysia

2.4.1. Indirect Communication->They do not offend others in interaction.

2.4.2. Refusals->They rarely give flat or negative "no" answer.

2.4.3. Laughter->They laugh when they feel ashamed as a defense mechanism.

2.4.4. Speech Style->Malay uses many parables, idioms, proverbs, rhymes and poetry.

2.4.5. Silence->Important and directed tool used in Asian communication.

2.4.6. Honorifics->They added their own father's name to the contact name.

2.4.7. Humour->People may laugh at what appears to considers as inappropriate moments.

2.4.8. Swearing->People don't know how to respond negatively.

2.5. Indonesia

2.5.1. Indirect Communication->using sign language alone is able to represent the message.

2.5.2. Refusals->Usually say "sorry, or I don't want to".

2.5.3. Laughter->Indonesian like to use small talk before they enter the core discussion.

2.5.4. Silence->They are silent when people don't want to talk about important things.

2.5.5. Speech Style->Adopt languages from other cultures, it seems creative.

2.5.6. Honorifics-Only people who have a royal title inheritance or descendants who have their own titles or names.

2.5.7. Humour-They can put humour in serious situations.

2.5.8. Swearing-People do not use much curse.

2.6. Singapore

2.6.1. Indirect Communication->Rely on facial expression, tone of voice and posture to tell them what they feel.

2.6.2. Refusals->Instead of saying "no", they might say "I will try",or "I will see what can I do"

2.6.3. Laughter->They gestured at the point rather than making a direct statement.

2.6.4. Speech Style->They tend to subtle, indirect and implicit in their communication.

2.6.5. Silence->is an important element of Singapore communication.

2.6.6. Honorifics-They added their own father's name to the contact name.

2.6.7. Humour-People are very serious, they rely use humour in daily conversation.

2.6.8. Swearing-They consider swear to signify frivolity and the problem of violence.

2.7. Laos

2.7.1. Indirect Communication-They are cultivate

2.7.2. Refusals-They avoid giving outright rejection.

2.7.3. Laughter-They tend to have a variety of smiles thet show different emotions or feelings.

2.7.4. Speech Style-It is important to talk to the eldery first.

2.7.5. Silence-Silence tends to pay attention and respect social hierarchy.

2.7.6. Honorifics-Family names adopted in the last few rounds.

2.7.7. Humour-Humour and laughter are widely accepted.

2.7.8. Swearing-They like to use curse compilation.

2.8. Netherlands (Europe)

2.8.1. Indirect Communication-As a form of openness highly valued and speak starightforwardly.

2.8.2. Speech Style-The language use internationally is English.

2.8.3. Communication Style-They tend to be friendly and often speak in short sentences.

2.8.4. Humour-Ironic and sarcasm are often not appreciated.

2.8.5. Formality-Various forms of expression show varying degrees of politeness and formality.

2.8.6. Body Language-Generally, people don't use body language.

2.9. Vietnam

2.9.1. Indirect Communication-Vietnamesse often speak genuinely and honestly.

2.9.2. Refusals-They void giving a flat "no" or negative response.

2.9.3. Speech Style-A tendency not to use very colourful expressions.

2.9.4. Silence-Pausing before giving response, it shows politeness and respect.

2.10. China

2.10.1. Indirect Communication-posture, expression, and tone of voice.

2.10.2. Refusals-They seldom give direct "no" or negative respond.

2.10.3. Silence-They pausing before giving respomse, it shows politeness.

2.10.4. Speech Style-Men generally speak louder than women.

2.11. Phillipine

2.11.1. Indirect Communication-Posture, expression and tone of voice.

2.11.2. Refusals-They seldom give a flat "no" or negative response.

2.11.3. Silence-They tend to just accept their miserable situations without trying to change their destiny.

2.11.4. Speech Style-They often use "po" at the end for older or higher status.

2.12. India

2.12.1. Indorect Communication-polite amd negotiation.

2.12.2. Refusals-Evasive refusals and indirectly express disagreement.

2.12.3. Silence-Silent than provide a direct "no".

2.12.4. Speech Style- Open-ended question and not be straightforward.

2.13. Cambodia

2.13.1. Communication Style-It is acceptable to be silent for longer periods when gather together.

2.13.2. Humour-Cambodians are quite cheerful and enjoh laughing.

2.13.3. Eye contact-direct eye-to-eye contact is considered disrespectful.

2.13.4. Body Language-Pointing with a single finger is considered to be rude and accusatory.

2.13.5. Expression-Smiling in conversation the meaning tends to depend on the situation.

2.14. Myanmar

2.14.1. Communication Style-Speaking loudly is generally onterpreted negatively as too abrasive.

2.14.2. Humour-The burmese often punctuate their sentences with a laughter, or a light giggle.

2.14.3. Eye contact-It shows attentiveness to the person who were talking.

2.14.4. Body Language-They don't point at domeone using single index finger.

2.14.5. Expression-The Burmese tend to smile throughout conversations.

2.15. Turkey

2.15.1. Communication Style-Peolple tend to speak in quite a slow and drawn-out way.

2.15.2. Humour-People generally have quite a relaxed sense of humour.

2.15.3. Eye Contact-Direct eye contact is expected throughout conversation.

2.15.4. Body Language-They avoid standing with your hands on your hips or in your pocket.

2.15.5. Expression-Some people may give the impression of having more 'serious' smiling less frequently with stranger.

2.16. Timor Leste

2.16.1. •Communication Style : Speaking loudly is generally interpreted negatively as too abrasive. •Humour : The Burmese often punctuate their sentences with laughter, or rather a light giggle.

2.16.2. Refusals : Evasive refusals and indirectly express disagreement. Speech Style- Open-ended question and not be straightforward.

2.17. Brunei Darussalam

2.17.1. Communication Style-Peolple tend to speak in quite a slow and drawn-out way.

2.17.2. Eye Contact-Direct eye contact is expected throughout conversation.

2.17.3. Body Language-They avoid standing with your hands on your hips or in your pocket.

2.17.4. Refusals-They seldom give a flat "no" or negative response.

2.17.5. Humour-Ironic and sarcasm are often not appreciated.

2.18. Uni Emirates Arab

2.18.1. Indirect Communication->using sign language alone is able to represent the message.

2.18.2. Humour-People generally have quite a relaxed sense of humour.

2.18.3. Body Language-They avoid standing with your hands on your hips or in your pocket.

2.18.4. Eye Contact-Direct eye contact is expected throughout conversation.

2.18.5. Refusals-Evasive refusals and indirectly express disagreement.

3. Clothing

3.1. Thailand

3.1.1. Traditional clothes, often use for ceremonial or formal occasion. 1. Cut thai (amarin, boromphiman, siwalai) 2. Pha Nung 3. Chang Kben 4. Raj Pattern 5. Sue Pat 6. Sinh

3.1.2. Modern Clothing Shirt Skirt Pants Cardigan

3.2. South Korea

3.2.1. Traditional Clothing Hanbok (Joseon Dynasty) Women 1. Jeogori 2. Dongjeong 3. Otgeoreum 4. Chima Men 1. Gat 2. Durumagi 3. Baji 4. Kkotsin Hwal-ot for bride Dangui for queen Hwangpo for king Wonsam for crown princess Accesories Binyeo hairpin Norigae Danghye shoes Gulle hat Ayam Gache Beoseon Jipsin

3.2.2. Modern Clothing Hoodie Sweater Cardigan Skirt Shirt Accesories 1. Sunglasses 2. Boots 3. Sneake 4. Choker

3.3. Japan

3.3.1. Traditional Clothing, it is often use for ceremonial or formal occasion. Kimono Women : Yukata Furisode Homongi Komon Mofuku Iromuji Tomesode

3.3.2. Uniform Seifuku (girls) Gakuran (boys)

3.3.3. Modern Clothing Harajuku Style Shirt Skirt Trousure

3.4. Malaysia

3.5. Indonesian Regional Clothes : 1.Pangsi & Iket sunda (Sundanese) 2.Jawi Tangkep & Kebaya (Javanese) 3.Sarong (Balinese) 4.Demang & Kebaya (Betawinese) 5.Kebaya Labuh (Riau)

3.6. Indonesia

3.6.1. Indonesian National Clothes Batik Kebaya

3.7. Singapore

3.7.1. Chinese Singapore : Cheongsam for women Tangzhuang for men

3.7.2. Indian Singapore : Saree for women Dhoti for men

3.7.3. Peranakan Singapore : Lok Chuan

3.7.4. Malay Singapore : Baju Kurung for women Baju Melayu for men

3.8. Laos

3.8.1. Sinh for women

3.8.2. Salong for men

3.9. Europe

3.9.1. Belgium Smock-frock

3.9.2. Slovaks Kroje

3.10. Vietnam

3.10.1. Traditional Clothing Custom Ao dai for women Ao gam for men Accesoseries Soles Non La

3.10.2. Modern Clothing Custom Shirt Trousure Cardigan Skirt

3.11. China

3.11.1. Traditional Clothing Custom Hanfu for women Zhongshan for men Cheongsam for women Tang suit for men

3.11.2. Modern Clothing Custom Dress Cardigan Shirt Short pants

3.12. Phillipine

3.12.1. Traditional Clothing Custom Barong Tagalog Maria Clara Dress Terno Malong

3.12.2. Modern Clothing Custom Shirt Dress Trousure Mini skirt Skirt Sweater

3.13. India

3.13.1. Traditional Clothing Custom Women: Men: 1.Saree 1. Dhoti 2.Lehenga Cholis 2. Turban 3.Salwar Kameez 4 Churidar 5.Lungi 6.Men

3.14. Cambodia

3.14.1. Sampot Chang Kben Sampot Phamuong Sampot Hol Sampot Tep Apsara Krama

3.15. Myanmar

3.15.1. Longyi Gaung Baung Taikpon Jacket Hnyat-phanat

3.16. Turkey

3.16.1. Kaftan Turkish Salvar Bindalli Takunys

3.17. Timor Leste

3.17.1. Tais Tais cloth is a form of traditional weavingcreated by the women of East Timor.

3.18. United Arab Emirates

3.18.1. •Abaya for women •Emiratis wear veils and long sleeved robes, worn especially in the summer. 

3.19. Brunei Darussalam

3.19.1. Baju Melayu is the general reference to the traditional Malay costume for men and it is said that the style has been in existence since the 15th Century.

4. Religion

4.1. Thailand

4.1.1. Buddhism : 94% Islam : 5% Christianity : 1% Other : 1% Religious Festival in Thailand : 1. Makha Bucha Day 2. Songkran 3. Chinese New Year Worship Places in Thailand : 1.Wat Pho, Bangkok. 2.Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai. 3.Dragon Cave, Phang Nga. 4.Wat Tham Suea – Tiger Cave Temple, Krabi. 5.Doi Inthanon, Ban Luang.

4.2. South Korea

4.3. Japan

4.4. Malaysia

4.4.1. 1. Islam : 61.3% 2. Bhuddism : 19.8% 3. Hindus : 6.3% 4. Christianism : 9.2% 5. Chinese Philosophie : 0.8% 6. Other : 1.3% Religious Festival in Malaysia : 1.Hari Raya Aidil Fitri 2.Hari Raya Aidil Adha 3.Prophet Muhammad's Birthday 4.Wesak Day 5.Deepavali 6.Christmas 7.Chinese New Year Worship Places in Thailand : 1. Putrajaya 2. St. Anne's Church 3. Sri Lanka Buddhist Temple 4. Batu Cave Temple

4.5. Indonesia

4.5.1. 1. Islam. : 86.6% 2. Christianism : 10% 3. Hinduism. : 1.7% 4. Bhuddism. : 0.7% 5. Konghucu. : 0.05% 6. Other. : 0.52% Religious Festival in Indonesia : 1.Isra Miraj 2.Idul Fitri 3.Christmas 4.Galungan 5.Nyepi 6.Wesak 7.Imlek Worship Places : 1. Istiqlal Mosque 2. Parahyangan Agung 3. Maha Vihara Maitreya 4. Kelenteng Kwan Sing Bio 5. Katedral Jakarta

4.6. Singapore

4.6.1. 1.Bhuddism : 42.5% 2.Taoism : 8.5% 3.Islam : 14.9% 4.Christianity : 14.6% 5.Hindus : 4% 6.Other : 14.8% Religious Festival 1. Hari Raya Haji 2. Hari Raya Puasa 3. Deepavali 4. Christmas 5. Lunar New Year Worship Places : 1. Lian Shan Lin Monastery 2. Abdul Gofoor Mosque 3. Tan Si Chong Su 4. Sri Thendayuthapani Temple 5. Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

4.7. Laos

4.7.1. 1.Buddhism : 64.7% 2.Islam : 2.1% 3.Christianism : 1.7% 4.Confucianism : 2.1% 5.Taoism : 2.1% 6.Folk religion : 2.1% 7.Hindus : 2.1% 8.Other : 31.4% Religious Festival in Laos : 1. Boun Pha Vet 2. Boun Ma Kha Bu Saar (Full Moon) 3. Boun Pi Mai 4. Boun Khao Salak (Rice) Worship Places : 1. Azhar Mosque 2. Sacre Coeur 3. Luang Prabang 4. Wat Phou

4.8. Europe

4.8.1. Netherland Roman Catholic : 11.7% Protestant : 8.6% Islam : 5.8% Hindus :2.0% Buddhism : 2.0% Other : 67.8% Religious Festival in Netherland: 1. Christmas 2. Easter

4.8.2. France Christianity : 51.1% Islam : 5.6% Judaism : 0.8% Undecided : 0.4% No Religion : 39.6% Other : 2.5% Worship Places 1. Tours Cathedral 2. La Grande Mosquee de Paris 3. Synagogue de la Victoire

4.9. Vietnam

4.9.1. Folk Religion : 45% Buddhism : 12.2% Christianity : 7% Caodism : 1% Hinduism : 1% Religious Festival in Vietnam : 1.Tet Nguyen 2.Tet Eve Worship Places in Vietnam : Po Nagar Tower My Son Sanctuary Subramaniam Temple Tran Quoc Pagoda Thien Mu Pagoda Perfume Pagoda Bai Dinh Pagoda

4.10. China

4.10.1. Buddhism Islam Christianity Buddhist Hindus Religious Festival in China : 1.Chinese New Year 2.Qingming Festival Worship Places in China : The Temple of Heaven, Beijing. The Temple of Heaven Nanshan Temple, Sanya. Nanshan Temple South Putuo Temple, Xiamen. SWannian Temple, Mount Emei Yonghe Lama Temple, Beijing

4.11. Phillipine

4.11.1. Roman Catholic : 80.6% Protestant : 8.2% Muslim : 5.6% Other : 1.9% Religious Festival in Philippine :

4.12. India

4.12.1. Hindus : 80% Muslim : 13.4% Christian : 2.3% Buddhist : 0.8% Religious Festival in India : 1.Makarsankranti / 2.PongalMonJan Thaipusam 3.Vasant PanchamiMon 4.Maha Shivaratri Worship Places in India : •Tirumala Venkateswara, •Moinuddin Chishti, Ajmer. •Basilica of Bom Jesus, Goa.

4.13. Cambodia

4.13.1. Theravada Buddhism : 96% Muslim : 1.9% Christian : 0.4% Religious Festival in Cambodia : •Chinese New Year •Meak Bochea •Khmer New Year •Labour Day Worship Places in Cambodia : Angkor Wat Bayon Ta Prohm Banteay Srei The other Ta Prohm Wat Langka

4.14. Myanmar

4.14.1. Buddhism : 89% Nat : 1% Islam : 4% Christian : 4% Hinduism : 2% Religious Festival in Myanmar : Full Moon Day of Waso (Beginning of Buddhist Lent) Martyrs' Day Raksha Bandhan Janmashtami Ganesh Chaturthi Worship Places in Myanmar : Sule Paya Shwedagon Pagoda Botatoung Pagoda

4.15. Turkey

4.15.1. Islam : 88% Christianity : 11% Judaism : 1% Religious Days in Turkey : Eid Al-Fitr Eid Al-Adha Christmas Easter Worship Places in Turkey : Sultan Ahmed Mosque Suleymaniye Cami Selimiye Mosque The Basilica of Saint John

4.16. Timor Leste

4.16.1. Chatolic : 98% Protestant : 23% Islam : 4% Other : 0.5% Religious Events in Timor Leste : Easter Christmas Eid Al-Fitr Eid Al-Adha Worship Places in Timor Leste : Pura Girinatha Pura Uma Laku Rahun Gereja Motael

4.17. Brunei Darussalam

4.17.1. Islam : 79% Christian : 8% Buddhist : 8% Other : 5% Religious Days in Brunei : Eid Al-Fitr Eid Al-Adha Easter Christmas Worship Places in Brunei : •Masjid Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin •Jame' 'Asr Hassanil Bolkiah •Masjid · Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei •Church of Our Lady of •Assumption Catholic Church

4.18. United Arab Emirates

4.18.1. Islam : 80% Hindu : 8% Christian : 5% Other : 7% Religious Days in UAE : Eid Al-Fitr Eid Al-Adha Easter Chrismas Worship Places in UAE : •Sheikh Zayed Mosque •Shiva and Krishna Mandir Temple •Oriental Orthodox •Eastern Orthodox

5. Naming

5.1. Thailand

5.1.1. Majority Thai people have two names. 1.Their full official name consist of first name: given by parents and last name: given by monk. 2.Thai's nickname example: Pink Sky

5.2. South Korea

5.2.1. A korean name consist of a family name followed by a given name. Example : Kang Dong Won Kang is family name And Dong Won is givem name.

5.3. Japan

5.4. Malaysia

5.4.1. Japanese names in modern usually consist of a family name followed by given name. Example : Furukawa Yuki Furukawa is family name and Yuki is given name.

5.4.2. Naming conventions generally different depending on Malaysian's ethnicity: Malay, Indian or Chinese-Malaysian. Malay's name is usually structured first name followed by a patronym (bin/binti) followed by father's name. Example Aisyah binti Sayed Chinese-Malaysian, usually follow chinese naming conventions Exsmple : James Zhiffu Wang. Indian-Malaysian, usually follow Indian naming conventions Example : Nita Kumar

5.5. Indonesia

5.5.1. Naming customs are different depending on the region of the person. Java : It is common to only have one name, Example : Supardjo Another common naming is to have more names without adopting family name, for example : Dinda Aenida Putri Batak namese consist of given name followed by family name, for example : Diana Nasution.

5.6. Singapore

5.6.1. It consists of given name followed by the patronymic (bin/binti) and followed by father's name. Example : Muhammad Khidir bin Muhammad Ali

5.7. Laos

5.8. England (Europe)

5.8.1. A complete name usually of a given name or christian name followed by family name, for example : Diana Spencer.

5.9. Vietnam

5.9.1. Vietnamesse names consist of 3-4 syllables name 2.middle name 3.given name Example : Nguyen Van Nam Laos naming conventions consist of first name is followed by the family name. Example : Soukbandith Bounsouan

5.10. China

5.10.1. Chinese naming usually consist of family name followed by given name. Example : Yao Ming Yao is family name Ming is given name

5.11. Phillipine

5.11.1. Most part of Phillipine is abide by the Spanish system. Example Jose Cuyengkeng y Mangahas Jose stand for baptys name Cuyengkeng is given name Y stand for legallity Mangahas is the family name

5.12. India

5.12.1. Sometimes, a Hindu family name may indicate caste and a person may drop to reject the caste system. Example : Sanjay lal Vasani

5.13. Cambodia

5.13.1. Cambodian naming custom consists of family name followed by given name. Example : Acharya Akra Acharya is family name Akra is given name

5.14. Myanmar

5.14.1. There are no first names or surenames in Myanmar culture, their names are usually 2-3 syllables. Example : Khin Zaw Win

5.15. Turkey

5.15.1. Mosttly Turkey naming custom have a similiar with Western naming custom. Given name followed by family name. Example : Kemal Aydin Kemal is given name Aydin is family name

5.16. Timor Leste

5.16.1. Timor Leste naming custom consists of family name followed by given name.

5.17. Brunei Darussalam

5.17.1. It consists of given name followed by the patronymic (bin/binti) and followed by father's name. Example : Abdul Alif bin Abdul Samad

5.18. United Arab Emirates

5.18.1. UAE naming custom consists of given name followed by family name. Example : Fatimah Alatas Fatimah is given name Alatas is family name