Romanian Cultural Costume

Romanian Cultural Costume mind map

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Romanian Cultural Costume par Mind Map: Romanian Cultural Costume

1. Opposite view of ban


2. Folklore and Music of Romania, Article, unknown author -

3. This is a blog made by Alina Stefanescu, which by her name I can tell she is Romanian.

4. Gypsy/Klezmer Dialectics: Jewish and Romani Traces and Erasures in Contemporary European World Music, Article, by Carol Silverman

5. Alina's source is really helpful to seeing the basics of the Romanian folk dances, where they each come from, which are for the guys, which are for the girls, and the names of the dances. There are also videos, which were cool to watch. Her general information was correct and I'd trust her as a source to get my information about the dances on, even though it is a blog. She also talks about how Klezmar musicians adapted Romanian folk music and dance, which is why Jewish folk music and dance is so similar.

5.1. What are the similarities between Romanian and Jewish folk music and dance?

6. Romanian National Costumes from 4 Ethnographic Zones, newsletter, unknown author

7. Romanian folk costumes and dances, Pepi Nikova, slide share.

8. Romania: General information, Condra Jill (2013) Encyclopedia of National dress. Traditional clothing around the world. Volume 2. ISBN 978-0313-37635-8

8.1. Do the costumes really signify wealth/birthplace even today?

9. I mostly liked this source because it shows me what the costumes in particular from Moldova, Muntenia, Oltenia, and Translynavia look like in a traditional sense. There is also a description as to what the pieces are called and how they all differ from each other from state to state. The source does call all the people in the photos peasants, which isn't true anymore as Romania is a developed country and most of the 20 million people living there are no longer peasants. But, the photos are old so I understand why they call them that.

10. Are all of the costumes still so divided by gender today? Meaning do the women still have to wear skirts and the head scarf even today?

11. The Batik: Between Tradition and Feminism | The Gazelle by DARIA ZĂHĂLEANU (magazine editor)

11.1. Do Hijabs (and other cultural pieces women wear on their heads) have the same meaning as Batiks religion/gender wise?

11.1.1. Article: Why do Muslim women wear a hijab? By Caitlin Killian, journalist What determines who's traditional gendered clothing are outlawed in certain places? Debating the Ban of the Veil in Public Schools, Excerpt, by unknown author

12. Which costume comes from which city in Romania?

13. Where did they originate?

14. Most people nowadays wear the costume while dancing. What do the dances relate to? How do they affect the culture? Do some people dance their whole lives?

14.1. What are the traditional dances that go along with each costume?

15. Quote: '“The batik is worn by women when they change their social status: from young girls to married women. Nowadays, in Transylvania, it is mainly worn at celebratory events,”' I like this source because Daria's research shows a completely different side to why women wear the Batik that I never knew about. She talks about status, women getting married, the new generation, and the old generation and how that differs with whether you wear a Batik or not. The headscarves are worn once you get married to show vulnerability to your husband, son, father, etc. Young single women only wear them to holidays and special occasions. This makes me wonder if all religions have the same reasons for covering their heads.

16. I found this source interesting because it gave a whole different reason why Muslim women wear a Hijab versus why Romanian women wear the Batik. Quote: "According to some, the veil has been used as a way of curbing male sexual desire" so, women cover their heads in order to show their submission to God. The source also mentions how nowadays, Muslim women wear the Hijab in order to show pride in their identity. I thought this was really cool because I always had the idea that they were forced to wear them or that they had no choice, but knowing that they have a choice and they choose to show pride in their ethnicity and religion is really cool.

17. This source was useful to me because it lists all the basic history of Romania, about its inhabitants, cities, and a brief history on the traditional clothing which will help further my research. This quote: "The roots of Romanian dress comes from the ancient Dacian, Getae and Thracian peoples and it bears a close resemblance to that of other peoples of the Balkan Peninsula." makes me wonder about who the ancient Dacian are and why their clothes followed through to modern Romania.

17.1. Main regions of each costume: Transylvania or Ardeal The western plains: Lower Mureș Plain, Criș Plain (Crișul Negru, Crișul Alb, Crișul Repede), Lower Someș Plain (Oaș Country) Banat, including Timiș Meadow and Caraș-Severin Wallachia, including Oltenia and Muntenia The Lower Danube, including Bărăgan, Dobruja and southern Moldavia Moldavia, including Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transnistria Balkans or Romanians of the Balkan Peninsula

17.2. Who are the ancient Dacian, Getae, and Thracian peoples? What did their clothes look like? Why do Romanian Clothes resemble their clothes?

17.2.1. The Getae/Dacian tribes. PDF by George Ljepojevic

18. I like that this slideshow shows modern pictures of the youth in the traditional Romanian costumes. The information and some of the spelling of the clothes (like "Chemise") is incorrect, but I overlooked those things because I like this source less for the information (as I have info from better sources) but more for the modern photos showing where each of the costume comes from/what it represents. I also liked that it branches out into showing the costumes of Serbs and Armenians in order to compare the cultures because this way I can see if the costumes are similar or not around the world.

19. This short writing piece summarized the 3 groups, Dacian, Getae, and Thracian peoples who lived in Europe over 3000 years ago. The king of Getae, who also served as the king of the Dacian people, was the greatest and most ambitious king in that region for a long time. In 2001, a monument in Romania dedicated to him. From my understanding, these people lived in that region long before Romanians and Albanians. And so, the population may have developed but the clothing style and tradition was passed on, and Romanians even today still wear them. Albanian clothes are similar to Romanian clothes as well.

20. I like that this article shows all the musical instruments involved in the making of Romanian folk music. I didn't think to ask this before, but how is the music made? Why is it that certain melodies are from specific cities? Well, this source shows us that there are differences in the way music is made which clarifies where the music is from, and which dance it is supposed to match to. The dances are from different cities, and the costumes are for different cities. So, you wear the costume that matches the song you are dancing to.

21. This article discusses the issues that have been happening in particular to women who are veiled across the world. The author also got quotes from the points of view of those women who have been told to take off their veil while in a class or in a public place, and they voice their opinions as to why they think that happened. A good quote was: '"I find that it’s really an attitude on the part of teachers that is really racist, truly. That, for me, is a racist act. We cannot exclude girls because they wear the headscarf....It’s really pointing a finger at them, and then [at] the culture of the child, they say to her “your culture, it’s not good.”'(Yusra, a 31-year-old Moroccan). This isn't good for young girls to experience because it could take away the pride that they feel when wearing a veil, like how the past article told us that women nowadays wear it to show pride in their religion. That is stripped away from the younger generation, and that could turn dangerous.

21.1. What are the dangers of women (especially young women) becoming ashamed of their culture?

21.1.1. "feelings of shame often give rise to a range of potentially destructive motivations, defenses, interpersonal behaviors, and psychological symptoms. In contrast, guilt appears to be the “quintessential” moral emotion serving numerous constructive “relationship‐enhancing functions” without many of the burdens and costs inherent in feelings of shame. (Tangney, 2001, p. 127)"

21.1.2. Guilt and Shame in Chinese Culture: A Cross‐cultural Framework from the Perspective of Morality and Identity, book published by Olwen Bedford

22. This article explains the history between the Jewish and Romanian cultures which led up to them being the way they are today. Apparently, although their music and folk is similar, they aren't very united as cultures. The gypsie/Klezmar mix originally happened in the 1970's, when the revival of Klezmars emerged and Jewish American musicians began touring Germany. There was a gypsie craze throughout western Europe, and the Balkan musicians (romanians) picked up the music from the Klezmars. This contradicts the past source we have read that stated that Romanians started the music first and the Jewish just adopted it. From my understanding, it was the other way around. I do like this source for the history it provides, and it looks a lot more scholarly than the others.