Commencez. C'est gratuit
ou s'inscrire avec votre adresse courriel
Rocket clouds

1. Mainly con tribute to the grammatical structure of the sentence. 🍬Grammatical words: CONTENT WORDS, THOSE THAT CARRY A HIGH INFORMATION LOAD. 🍬Words are usually NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Typically, where space is a premium, such as in text messages, newspaper headlines, and road signos,it is the content words alone that to the job:RAIL STRIKE TALKS END

2. Very many words in English have different but overlapping meanings. Take fair. 🥨 Having multiple but related meanings, each of which is called a polyseme.

3. The chunks vary in terms of how fixed, and how idiomatic, they are. Example out of the blue. 🍡 Less idiomatic. Year afther Year, on the is only semi-fixed. It allows a limited amount of manipulation:we can say month after month and day after day. 🍡A lot of chunks that are used to express vague quantities and qualities:loads of, that sort of tbing, more or Less nos and again. 🍡Informal language are compounds (look afther) known as either phrasal verbs or multi-part verbs.


4.1. Componding the combining of two or more independent words, second-band,word processor,paperback. 🌿Many compounds started life as two separate words is evident from their variant spellings:disb washer, disb-washer, disbwasher, record player, a single word -noun+verb+, - er-

4.2. 🌿The two patterns - noun + noun and noun + verb + - er - can re-combine to form even more complex compounds:dumptruck-drive, candlestick-maker, windscreen-wiper, and so on. 🌿Or a word can be co-opted from one part of speech and usted as another, a process called conversión. Typically nouns are converted into verbs, new words can be coined by shortening or clipping longer words.


5.1. Attempt to define what exactly a Word is. 🌺I like looking for bits and pieces like old second-had record players and doing them up to look like new. 🌺There are not twenty different word in tha sentence,on the other hand, the first Like is a ver, and the other two are prepositions-so is this really a case of the same word being repeated.

5.2. The decision as to what conts as a Word might seem rather académica, but there are important implications in terms of teaching. 🍬Is It enough, for example, to teach to look and assume that learning lo look for and to look afther will follow automatically?.



7.1. Words may share the same base or root but take different endings:LOOKS, LOOKING, LOOKED. 💮The different grammatical(VERBAL AND NOMINAL) forms of a word are called iflexions. Adding affixes serves a grammatical purpose. 💮It is aslo a fundamental principle of word formation general LY-the adding of affixes to the roots of words to fashion new words. 💮A word that results from the addition of an affix to root, and which has a different meaning from the rooot.

7.2. 💮Inflexions and derivatives are both formed by process of affixation, suffixes, prefixes. 💮A word family comprises the base word plus its inflexions and its most common derivatives.


8.1. Words play different roles in a tex. They fall into one of eight different word classes: 🍬Nouns 🍬Pronouns 🍬 verbs 🍬Adverb 🍬Prepositions 🍬Conjuncion 🍬Determiner The unrepresented class are the determiners-word like a, the, some, this, last. In terms of the meanings associated with these word classes, we can make a crude division into two groups.

8.2. Collocation two words are collocates if they occur together with more than chance frequency corpus data. 🍄The most frequent collocate of record , for example, is world. Another is set, she set a New world. 🍄 Text with some of its more frequent collocations underlined, while the more fixed multi-word units are in italics: "A record number of 54 teams will be competing in three sections as the Bryants Carpets Intermediate Snooker League gets underway this week. Once again all three sections are likely to be very closely contested. In sections A, defending champions Mariner Automatics, captained once again by the most successful skipper in the league, John Stevens, will be the team to beal."

8.3. 🍄 Is should be clear from this passage the extent to which word choice is heavily constrained by what comes before and after


9.1. To meet these challenges the learner needs to: 🍂Acquire a critical mass of words for use in both understanding and producing language. 🍂Remember words over time, and be able to recall them readily. 🍂Develop strategied for coping with gaps in word knowledge, including coping with unknown words, or unfamiliar uses know words.

9.2. Learning the vicabulary of a second language presents the learner whit the following challenges: 🍁Making the correct connections, when understanding the second, between the forn and the meaning of Word including dicriminating the meanings of closey related words. 🍁When producing language, using the correct form of a Word for the meaning


10.1. Even when words are not joined to form compounds, we have seen that groups of more than one word, such as bis and pieces, do up, look for, can function as a meaningful unit with a fixed or semi-fixed form. 🍡MULTI-WORD 🍡LEXICAL CHUNKS


11.1. I like looking, look like new. Words that share the same form but have un related meanings are called 🍩homonyms:well, bat, shed, lefy, fair, ect, while fair in the sense of beautiful or pleasing comes from an Old English word (fager) 🍩its homonym fair, as in skiptom fair, comes from Latín feria by way of french foire.

11.2. 🍩Sound the same but are spelt differently: Horse and hoarse, meet and meat,tail and tale, discrete and discreet , aloud and allowed. 🍩Homophones (literally 'same sound') aslo words that are pronounced differently but spelt the same: a windy day, but a long and windy road, a live concert, but where do you live? a lead pipe, but a lead singer, homographs.



13.1. Words that share a similar meaning. Thus:old, ancient, antique, aged, elderly are all synonyms in that they share the common meaning of not young/New. 🌸 Synonyms are similar, but seldom the same. 🌸Nevertheless, like synonyms, antonyms have a useful defining function and are therefore a convenient teaching resource.


14.1. 🌼Words that have this kind of thematic relationship are said to belong to the same lexical field. 🌼Words that are linked since they belong to the same subject, for example fruit: apple, banana, pear ect.


15.1. 🐞Words have different function. 🐞The same word can have a variety of forms. 🐞Words can be addeb to, or combined, to form new words. 🐞Words can group together to form units. 🐞Many words common y co-occur with other words. 🐞Words many look and/or sound the same but have quite different meanings. 🐞Some words can be defined in terms of therms of their relationship with other words.


16.1. Hyponym way word meanings are related. A hyponymous relationship is a kind of relationship,as in A bammer is a kind of tool or A kiwi is a kind of bird(and a kind of fruit) 🍃 Thus, bammer is a hyponym of tool;kiwi a hyponym of bird (and fruit) 🍃Co-hyponyms share the same ranking in a hierarchy:bammer,saw,screwdriver are all co-hyponyms;tool is the superordinate term.