WHAT INFLUENCES STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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WHAT INFLUENCES STRUCTURAL DESIGN por Mind Map: WHAT INFLUENCES STRUCTURAL DESIGN

1. CONNECTIONS TO EARLIER SCIENCE CLASSES

1.1. Grade 5

1.1.1. Topic E: Wetland Ecosystems

1.1.1.1. Overview - Students learn about wetland ecosystems by studying life in a local pond, slough, marsh, fen or bog...The role of human action in affecting wetland habitats and populations is also studied.

1.1.1.2. GLO 5-10 - Describe the living and nonliving components of a wetland ecosystem and the interactions within and among them.

1.1.1.3. SLO - 9 - Identify human actions that can threaten the abundance or survival of living things in wetland ecosystems; e.g., adding pollutants, changing the flow of water, trapping or hunting pond wildlife. 10 - Identify individual and group actions that can be taken to preserve and enhance wetland habitats.

1.1.1.4. Connection - When exploring structural design in later grades, the foundational knowledge of human impact on ecosystems can be used to assess the potential harms stemming from structures and even create or design structures to promote conservation and enhance wetland habitats

1.2. Grade 6

1.2.1. Topic A: Air and Aerodynamics

1.2.1.1. Overview - Students explore the characteristics of air and the interaction between moving air and solids. They learn that air is a compressible fluid, that it is composed of many gases, and that moving air can support solid materials in sustained flight. By studying birds and airplanes, they learn a variety of adaptations and designs that make flight possible and that provide for propulsion and control.

1.2.1.2. GLO - 6-5 - Describe properties of air and the interactions of air with objects in flight.

1.2.1.3. SLO - 7 - Recognize that streamlining reduces drag, and predict the effects of specific design changes on the drag of a model aircraft or aircraft components.

1.2.1.4. Connections - Comprehension of the structural design of aircraft and the importance to account for draft and wind will serve as an importance base when discussing other structures and their design in terms of wind, streamlining and even creation of structures that may interact with air

1.2.2. Topic D: Evidence and Investigation

1.2.2.1. Overview - Students sharpen their skills in observing and interpreting what they see by investigating evidence of human and animal activity. They explore and analyze indoor and outdoor environments as they look for footprints, markings, evidence of disturbance and things that are left behind. Through these studies, students learn to pose questions, devise investigations, recognize patterns and discrepancies, and think logically about what they have observed.

1.2.2.2. GLO - 6–8 - Apply observation and inference skills to recognize and interpret patterns and to distinguish a specific pattern from a group of similar patterns. 6–9 - Apply knowledge of the properties and interactions of materials to the investigation and identification of a material sample.

1.2.2.3. SLO - 3 - Recognize that evidence found at the scene of an activity may have unique characteristics that allow an investigator to make inferences about the participants and the nature of the activity, and give examples of how specific evidence may be used.

1.2.2.4. Connection - Using the skills they develop in this topic, students will be better prepared to investigate the reasons behind structural design and how to improve and find faults, problems, patterns, needs

2. CONNECTIONS TO LATER SCIENCE CLASSES

2.1. Grade 8

2.1.1. Unit B: Cells and Systems

2.1.1.1. Overview - To develop their understanding, students investigate ways that components of a living system work together and, through these studies, learn that healthy organisms—including healthy humans—function as balanced systems within a life-supporting environment.

2.1.1.2. Knowledge Outcome - 1- Investigate living things; and identify and apply scientific ideas used to interpret their general structure, function and organization

2.1.1.3. Connection - using their knowledge and experience with the design of buildings students can compare the design of living things to human made structures and connect forces that act on those structures to that of structures in the living world

2.1.2. Unit D: Mechanical System

2.1.2.1. Overview - Machines are used for many purposes in our daily lives when we need to transfer energy into motion or move materials in a controlled way. In learning about mechanical devices, students investigate how components are linked so that energy is transferred efficiently and desired functions are performed.

2.1.2.2. Knowledge Outcomes

2.1.2.2.1. 1.1 - investigate and provide examples of mechanical devices used in the past to meet particular needs

2.1.2.2.2. 4.3 - illustrate how technological development is influenced by advances in science, and by changes in society and the environment

2.1.2.3. Connection - Students can relate the forces which have influences structural design to the creation of mechanical devices to meet particular needs and how technological development relates to design concepts throughout history

2.2. Grade 9

2.2.1. Unit E: Space Exploration

2.2.1.1. Overview - A study of space exploration provides an opportunity for students to examine how science and technology interact and to learn how one process augments the other. Students become aware that technologies developed to meet the challenges of space are applied to new purposes.

2.2.1.2. Knowledge Outcomes - Identify problems in developing technologies for space exploration, describe technologies developed for life in space, and explain the scientific principles involved 2.3 - describe technologies for space transport, and interpret the scientific principles involved (e.g., describe the development of multistage rockets, shuttles and space stations; build a model vehicle to explore a planet or moon)

2.2.1.3. Connection - Using their knowledge of forces and structure design student can analyze technologies of space travel to uncover why they were designed in specific ways and then use their experience to visualize new transport vehicles

3. RELATIONS TO LIFE OF SCIENCE

3.1. How It's Made

3.1.1. Once students begin to look at why structures are designed a certain way they'll begin to wonder about the process of building those structures to fit that design.

3.1.2. Once students look into the design process they'll be exposed to potential career opportunities in assembly and construction

3.2. Community Appreciation

3.2.1. As students inquire about the different influences of design, particularly cultural influences, they will come to appreciate how cultural identity is expressed through structural design.

3.2.2. By indulging in this inquiry question students will become more aware of the design of structures within their own communities

3.3. Original Design

3.3.1. When students inquire about the process of design they'll begin to inquire on how certain designs can be improved upon, and hopefully start thinking of their own designs.

4. CONNECTION TO OTHER SUBJECTS IN SAME GRADE

4.1. Aesthetics

4.1.1. One key element of structural design is not only performance under pressure but also the aesthetic appeal of the design. How a structure looks is as important as how it operates and because of this structural design can be linked to subjects such as Art and even ELA.

4.1.1.1. When you first think of aesthetics and design you think of art, and that is not a coincidence. In fact one could say it was, by design (wink wink, nudge nudge). It is for this reason that the inquiry question "what influences structural design" can be link to Art class. A good example is blueprints and concept art for new construction projects.

4.1.1.2. When you think of ELA no doubt the first think that comes to your mind is reading. And while it may be true that there is a lot of reading in ELA (so much reading), a major component of reading is descriptive writing. Many great writers have a tendency to describe the worlds of their work in great detail. And this is a great way to link ELA to this inquiry question. By asking why are things and places in stories described the way they are? By looking why a space ship looks like a whale instead of a kangaroo or why a city is built inside a hollowed out mountain instead around students will be more opportunity to engage their knowledge of structures and forces.

4.2. Cultural Diversity

4.2.1. Cultural diversity is a major component of Canadian identity. People in Canada come from all over the world and many different walks of life. And different people who come from different places bring with them different customs and different philosophies on design. which makes this a good link to subjects such as ELA and Social Studies

4.2.1.1. Social Studies is fundamentally about understanding the relationship between people of differing cultures and/or nationalities. One way a Social Studies class can look at these differences is in the philosophies of structural design of different nations. For example European countries enjoy having grand, larger then life, cathedrals while Asian countries prefer more modest out of the way temples. Asian countries are also more likely to base their design decisions on the natural world, particularly the ideal of asymmetry and celebrating the signs of aging. When asking what influences design, looking at the people doing the designing can be a good starting point.

4.2.1.2. A good way to understand the identity of a cultural group is to look at the literature that group creates, in it one can see what ideals that group values the most. for example Canadian literature focuses on battling and taming the forces of nature. However FNMI stories often focus on respecting and revering the natural world.

4.3. Practicality

4.3.1. Practicality is one aspect of structural design that is most likely to get rushed over in favour of the more romantic avenues of inquiry. However practicality is one of the fundamental aspect of structural design. Because of this it can be used to link the inquiry to math and even music

4.3.1.1. Math...what to say about math. Well, its definitely a thing. I kid I kid, mathematics and numeracy are fundamental skills one needs for proper development. for this reason that math is very important for this inquiry question. An understanding of mathematics and help with running experiments involving putting different materials under stress to see which one would be the most practical to use.

4.3.1.2. Music, bet you weren't expecting that were you. But you see, that is the beauty of science, it can show up anywhere, even right behind you (don't look, it frightens easily). For this the link between science and music is acoustics. How sound travels through different spaces and how it is amplified and modified by those spaces and certainly have an effect on the design of said spaces.

5. GRADE 7 SCIENCE

5.1. Program Vision

5.1.1. "Diverse learning experiences within the science program provide students with opportunities to explore, analyze and appreciate the interrelationships among science, technology, society and the environment, and develop understandings that will affect their personal lives, their careers and their futures" Page 1

5.2. Unit D: Structures and Forces

5.2.1. Overview - They examine different ways that structural components are configured, analyze forces involved, and investigate resulting effects on structural strength and stability.

5.2.2. Key Concepts - structural forms, forces on and within, structural stability, performance requirements

5.2.3. Knowledge Outcomes

5.2.3.1. 1.2 - interpret examples of variation in the design of structures that share a common function, and evaluate the effectiveness of the designs (e.g., compare and evaluate different forms of roofed structures, or different designs for communication towers) 1.3 - describe and compare example structures developed by different cultures and at different times; and interpret differences in functions, materials and aesthetics (e.g., describe traditional designs of indigenous people and peoples of other cultures; compare classical and current designs; investigate the role of symmetry in design) 2.2 - identify examples of frictional forces and their use in structures (e.g., friction of a nail driven into wood, friction of pilings or footings in soil, friction of stone laid on stone) 2.3 - identify tension, compression, shearing and bending forces within a structure; and describe how these forces can cause the structure to fail (e.g., identify tensile forces that cause lengthening and possible snapping of a member; identify bending forces that could lead to breakage) 4.2 - identify environmental factors that may affect the stability and safety of a structure, and describe how these factors are taken into account (e.g., recognize that snow load, wind load and soil characteristics need to be taken into account in building designs; describe example design adaptations used in earthquake-prone regions)

5.2.4. Skills Outcomes

5.2.4.1. Initiating and Planning - propose alternative solutions to a practical problem, select one, and develop a plan (e.g., propose an approach to increasing the stability of a structure) Analyzing and Interpreting - identify and evaluate potential applications of findings (e.g., identify possible applications of materials for which they have studied the properties)

5.2.5. Attitude Outcomes

5.2.5.1. Interest in Science - Students will be encouraged to: Show interest in science-related questions and issues, and pursue personal interests and career possibilities within science-related fields (e.g., apply knowledge of structures in interpreting a variety of structures within their home community; ask questions about techniques and materials used, and show an interest in construction and engineering

5.2.5.2. Mutual Respect - Students will be encouraged to: Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the interaction of ideas involving people with different views and backgrounds (e.g., recognize that a variety of structural forms have emerged from different cultures at different times in history)

5.2.5.3. Stewardship - Students will be encouraged to: Demonstrate sensitivity and responsibility in pursuing a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment (e.g., consider the cause-and-effect relationships of personal actions and decisions)