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Pronouns por Mind Map: Pronouns

1. What is a pronoun? It has the grammatical properties of a noun and does the work of a noun. It serve to help you avoid repetition of nouns.

1.1. Meaning

1.1.1. Thingness or substance. The word used in the place of or as a substitute for a noun.

1.2. Form

1.2.1. Grammatical Morphemes

1.2.1.1. your-yourS (cat. of number)

1.2.2. Lexical Morphemes

1.2.2.1. her-herSELF

1.3. Functions

1.3.1. Phrase level, Sentence level

1.3.1.1. ▪the subject of a verb, as in - ▪the object of a finite verb - ▪the object of a non-finite verb - ▪the object of a preposition - ▪indirect object of a verb - ▪a word showing possession - ▪or a complement after a linking verb - ▪or a word performing an appositive function -

1.3.1.1.1. HE helped the poor man. The boys saw HIM. The boys wanted to help HIM. Give this money to HIM. The boys gave HIM the money. The blue shirt is HIS. It is HE. The Company's assistant, HE, solved this problem.

1.3.1.1.2. ___

2. Personal

2.1. used to replace nouns or noun phrases.

2.1.1. Object

2.1.1.1. ME HIM HER IT US THEM YOU

2.1.2. Subject

2.1.2.1. I, WE

2.1.2.2. YOU

2.1.2.2.1. Often used when explaining how to do smth

2.1.2.3. THEY

2.1.2.3.1. Talking about a specific group

2.1.2.4. HE, SHE

2.1.2.4.1. ship, boat, car > she; it<baby; when geographical entities, country names > it; when a political or economic entity> she

3. Reciprocal

3.1. EACH OTHER ONE ANOTHER

3.1.1. hold the same meaning in a sentence. EACH OTHER is used far more widely than ONE ANOTHER therefore if in doubt which one to choose use "each other".

4. Impersonal

4.1. IT

4.1.1. Used to talk about time, distance, temperature

4.1.1.1. It's half past 3.

4.2. THEY

4.2.1. is used to talk about a wide group of people such as countries, institutions, unknown/unspecified groups, authorities.

4.2.1.1. THEY opened a great new sushi restaurant in Moscow.

4.3. THERE

4.3.1. There + to be = Introduce the existence of smb/ smth

4.3.1.1. THERE's something in the dark.

4.3.1.1.1. Be careful when using their, there, they’re. Their meaning is different.

4.4. ONE

4.4.1. Formal or Very formal > Can use POSSESSIVE one’s

4.4.1.1. ONE should never be mean.

4.4.1.1.1. In American English ONE is often replaced by "you" which has an identical meaning and a less formal.

5. Reflexive

5.1. pronouns where the subject and the object are the same person(s)

5.1.1. By + Reflexive pronoun

5.1.1.1. 1) to emphasize that an action has already been carried out 2) to indicate that the action is done by the person/s alone rather than by anyone else.

5.1.1.1.1. He is climbing by HIMSELF.

5.1.2. NOT after PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

5.1.2.1. e.g. I put my bag beside ME (not MYSELF)

5.1.3. Certain verbs are not reflexive

5.1.3.1. e.g. WASH, SHAVE, FEEL, RELAX, MEET, CONCENTRATE

5.2. MYSELF, YOURSELVES...

5.3. Emphatic/ Intensive

5.3.1. used for highlighting the noun or pronoun that comes before it.

5.3.1.1. e.g. He HIMSELF is responsible for those low grades. The village ITSELF is very small.

6. Relative

6.1. Link one part of a sentence to another

6.2. WHO WHEN WHERE THAT...

6.2.1. ...the lady WHO helped me. ...the man WHOSE horse won the race. ...the book THAT my mother wrote.

6.2.1.1. WHICH can be a relative pronoun and an adjective. 'which'>a relative pronoun when it introduces a relative clause by taking the place of the noun that the clause relates to. 'which' >an adjective when it's placed before the noun it describes.

6.2.1.1.1. The book, WHICH I left in my locker, is overdue at the library.

6.2.1.1.2. I don't know WHICH tie goes better with this suit.

6.2.1.2. WHAT can be used as a relative pronoun

6.2.1.2.1. She does WHAT she wants.

7. Interrogative

7.1. simple are used to ask questions

7.1.1. WHAT WHICH WHOM...

7.2. compound (those ending in ‘ever’) are used to express surprise, confusion, irritation, etc.

7.2.1. WHATEVER WHOEVER...

7.2.1.1. WHICHEVER came first? WHATEVER are you doing?

8. Indefinite

8.1. refers to an indefinite or general person or thing.

8.2. everyone, something nobody, nothing...

8.2.1. Affirmative sentences

8.2.1.1. SOME______ are used to describe an indefinite quantity; EVERY______ > a complete quantity; NO______ > an absence.

8.2.1.1.1. He saw SOMETHING in the garden.I gave EVERYTHING to John. NO ONE is eating in the dinner room

8.2.2. Negative sentences

8.2.2.1. can only be formed with ANY______.

8.2.2.1.1. e.g. I can't find ANYONE to come with me.

8.2.3. Negative questions

8.2.3.1. These questions can usually be answered with a "yes" or a "no"

8.2.3.1.1. e.g. Is there ANYTHING to eat?

8.2.3.2. SOME______ used in questions we think we already know the answer, or questions which are not true (invitations, requests, etc.)

8.2.3.2.1. e.g. Are you looking for SOMEONE? Have you lost SOMETHING?

8.3. Quantifier

8.3.1. Few Less Several Plenty One Enough...

8.4. Distributive

8.4.1. each, either, neither, any, none

8.4.1.1. EITHER used as a pronoun, a conjunction, an adjective and an adverb.

8.4.1.1.1. As a pronoun: I have an oatmeal cookie and a sugar cookie, you may choose EITHER. As a conjunction: You have a choice, EITHER the oatmeal or the sugar cookie. As an adjective: You must have the permission slip signed by EITHER parent. As an adverb: If my mother won't sign it, then my father won't EITHER.

9. Demonstrative

9.1. function as subjects or objects

9.1.1. Pronoun replaces the noun

9.1.1.1. THIS is delicious.

9.1.2. Adjective qualifies a noun

9.1.2.1. This CAKE is delicious.

9.2. THIS THOSE

9.2.1. This car is better than THAT. These animals are wilder than THOSE.

10. Possessive

10.1. Show ownership

10.2. HIS MINE YOURS...

10.2.1. there is a major distinction between possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives . While possessive pronouns are used in place of nouns, possessive adjectives modify or describe nouns.

10.2.1.1. Possessive pronouns: This dress is MINE. That school is HERS. This house is THEIRS. This is their house.

10.2.1.2. Possessive adjectives This is MY dress . This is HER school. This is THEIR house.

10.2.1.2.1. my, your, their

11. Different categories

11.1. Number

11.1.1. singular (I, me, it, anyone, this, that...) plural (we, us, they, all, these...)

11.2. Gender

11.2.1. Masculine (he, him, his); Feminine (she, her, hers) Common (they, them, theirs); Neuter (it, its, that, this)

11.3. Case

11.3.1. ▪Vocative Case (this case has the same form as the nominative) ▪Nominative ▪Accusative (for the nouns it have the same form for both nominative and accusative) ▪Genitive case ▪Dative case (In modern English, the dative is identical to the accusative)

11.3.1.1. I saw the phone. The boss called me. "I" is used for the subject and "me" for the object.

11.3.1.1.1. ___

11.3.1.2. You cannot say... *ME saw the boy. (* means grammatically incorrect)

11.4. Person

11.4.1. First Person (I, me, mine, we, us, ours); Second Person (you, yours); Third Person - (it, its, they, theirs, them.)

12. What is a conjunctive pronoun

12.1. is a word that does the work of both a conjunction and a pronoun.

12.1.1. I like the person WHO I am now . The car THAT hit the sign was blue.