Instructional Design

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Instructional Design von Mind Map: Instructional Design

1. Phase 10: Evaluation Plan

1.1. Objectives

1.2. Performance Standards

1.3. Data Collection

1.3.1. Direct testing

1.3.2. Analysis of naturally occurring events

1.3.3. Direct/indirect observations

1.3.4. Portfolios

1.3.5. Exhibitions

1.4. Implementation

1.4.1. When

1.4.2. How

1.5. Analysis

1.5.1. Frequency distribution

1.5.2. Frequency graphs or histograms

1.5.3. Descriptive stats

1.5.4. Respondent comments

1.6. Utilization

1.6.1. Evaluation Report Executive summary

1.6.2. Oral Report

2. Phase 11: Implementation Plan

2.1. Model & Rationale

2.1.1. Configuration, linkages, environment, resources (CLER) Configuration Designer system Client system Configurational relationships Linkages Formal Informal Environment Physical Social Intellectual Resources Conceptual Influence Material Personnel Institutional Time Identifies, manipulates, and capitalizes on various configurational relationships

2.1.2. Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) What change is How change affects someone personally Informational and personal

2.2. Plan

2.2.1. Diffusion - Communicating info to a client and target audience about an innovation

2.2.2. Adoption - Decision to use the innovation

2.2.3. Innovation - New to an entity who is considering using it Advantage Compatibility with values/needs/experiences Innovation complexity Ability to try Observable results

2.2.4. Communication

2.2.5. Time

2.2.6. Social system

3. Phase 12: Project Management Considerations

3.1. Schedule

3.1.1. Fixed duration

3.1.2. Variable duration

3.2. Budget

3.2.1. Labor costs

3.2.2. Rental of equipment

3.2.3. Facilities

3.2.4. Production material

3.3. Project Management

3.3.1. Scope/Constraints Time available Degree of quality Budget

3.3.2. Management activities Starting Managing resources Tracking Project reporting

3.4. Proposal Preperation

3.4.1. Project agreement Statement of purpose Plan of work Milestones and deliverables Budget Schedule Staffing

3.4.2. Legal considerations Contracts may be needed State and federal mandates Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Environmental Resources Act (ERA) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Common legal problems in training Failure to perform training Emotional trauma or physical injury from training Intellectual property infringement Discriminatory content Injury due to human error Access to training Testing and evaluation Failure to perform Inadequate documentation

4. Phase 1: Statement of Intent

4.1. Statement of Intent

4.1.1. Identify Instructional Problem

4.2. Target Audience

4.3. Timeline

4.4. Context

5. Phase 2: Needs Assessment and Goal Analysis

5.1. Instructional Aim

5.2. Performance Assessment

5.2.1. How will instruction help the problem

5.2.2. Needs Assessment Normative Comparative Felt Expressed Anticipated Critical

5.2.3. Goal Analysis

5.3. Learner Personas

6. Phase 3: Learner and Contextual Analysis

6.1. Contextual Levels

6.1.1. Orienting Context Goals Perceived Utility Perception of Accountability Factors Learner Factors Immediate Environment Factors Organizational Factors

6.1.2. Instructional Context

6.1.3. Transfer Context

7. Phase 4: Task Analysis

7.1. Content Structures

7.1.1. Facts

7.1.2. Concepts

7.1.3. Principles and Rules

7.1.4. Procedures

7.1.5. Interpersonal Skills

7.1.6. Attitudes

7.2. Topic Analysis

7.3. Procedural/Information-Processing Analysis

8. Before You Start

8.1. Designers

8.1.1. Instructional Designer (YOU)

8.1.2. Subject Matter Expert

8.1.3. Evaluator

8.2. Design Models

8.2.1. ADDIE Model

8.2.2. A Basic Model Learners Objectives Methods Evaluation

8.3. Will instruction solve the problem?

9. Phase 5: Instructional Objective

9.1. Domain

9.1.1. Cognitive Bloom's Taxonomy Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create

9.1.2. Pychomotor Dave's Model Imitate Manipulate Precision Articulation Naturalization Simpson's Model Perception Set Guided Response Mechanism Complex Overt Response Adaptation Origination Harrow's Model Reflex Movement Basic Fundamental Movements Perceptual Abilities Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Nondiscursive Communication

9.1.3. Affective Theories of Attitude Formation and Change Behavioral Learning Theory Cognitive Dissonance Theory Affective-Cognitive Consistency Social Judgment Theories Social Learning Theory Functional Theories Krathwohl’s Taxonomy

9.2. Taxonomy Alignment

9.3. Parsing the Objectives

10. Phase 6: Sequencing Strategies

10.1. Objectives

10.1.1. Expanded Performance-Content Matrix Face, concept, principle/rule, procedure, interpersonal skill, or attitude Recall or application

10.2. Sequencing

10.2.1. Posner and Strike Learning-Related Identifiable Prerequisite Familiarity Difficulty Interest Development World-Related Spatial Temporal Physical Concept-Related Class Relations Propositional Relations Sophistication Logical Prerequisite

10.2.2. Elaboration Theory Content Expertise Conceptual Elaboration Theoretical Elaboration Task Expertise

10.2.3. Gagne Conditions of Learning Intellectual skills (procedural knowledge) Verbal information (declarative knowledge) Cognitive strategies (techniques of thinking, analyzing, and solving problems) Motor skills (executing movements) Attitudes (mental states that influence the choice of actions) Instructional Events Gaining attention (reception) Informing learners of the objective (expectancy) Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) Presenting the stimulus (selective perception) Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) Eliciting performance (responding) Providing feedback (reinforcement) Assessing performance (retrieval) Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)

10.3. Strategies

10.3.1. Motivational strategy

10.3.2. Strategy for initial presentation

10.3.3. Generative strategy Recall Repetition Rehearsal Review Mnemonic Devices Integration Paraphrasing Generating questions and examples Organizational Outlines Categorizing Elaboration Generating mental images Creating diagrams Relating existing knowledge to new info

10.3.4. Strategy for providing feedback to learner

10.3.5. Prescriptions for instructional strategies Fact Concrete Abstract Lists Concept Principles and Rules RULEG EGRUL Procedures Cognitive Psychomotor Interpersonal Attitude

11. Phase 7: Sample Lesson

11.1. Description and Pre-instructional Stratagies

11.1.1. Pretests Alert students to what is expected Length of instruction is short and loosely structured Above-average, older, or mature learners Have some familiarity with content

11.1.2. Behavioral objectives Inform exactly what’s expected Used to preface a passage Middle ability students Best with traditional methods like lectures

11.1.3. Overviews Prepare for task Little to no structure Low or high ability students Facts or concepts

11.1.4. Advance organizer Conceptual framework to clarify content Should have a dominant structure Above average ability, maturity, sophistication Factual info Comparative Organizer - Compare new and old content Expository organizer - Incorporates relevant old info

11.2. Gagne

11.3. Plan B

11.4. Assessment

11.5. Rationale for Design

11.5.1. Learning Theories - How you learn Behavioral Learning Theory Positive Rewards Negative Punishments Social Learning Theory Modelling after someone Attention Retention Production Motivation Cognitive Theory Concerned with the mind

11.5.2. Instructional Theory - How you ensure desired learning occurs

11.5.3. Instructional Design Model - How you create an effective lesson

12. Phase 8: Materiels & Media

12.1. Instructional Media Selection

12.1.1. Preinstructional Strategy

12.1.2. Initial Presentation

12.1.3. Generative Stratagy

12.1.4. Transitions

12.1.5. Cognitive Load Intrinsic - Interactivity of elements Extraneous - Design or layout Goal-Free - Determine what is known, then find shortest path to solution Worked-Example - How to solve by presenting steps Split-Attention - Illustration and text divide attention to comprehend material Redundancy - Text with text and illustration increases load

12.2. Rationale

12.2.1. Heuristics Make it concrete Control the step size Use appropriate pacing Maintain consistency Use cues

12.3. Strengths and Limitations

12.3.1. Group (Lecture) Pro - Familiar convention, quick to design, direct control of class, serves large numbers, easy to change, feasible communication Con - Passive learning, not adaptive, instruction stops with questioning, inappropriate for psychomotor, consistency difficult, auditory issues may arise

12.3.2. Distance Education Pro - Large number can "attend" without going to campus, quality equipment can transmit high quality presentations, con experience as it happens, can study and complete anytime and anywhere Con - Quality may be inferior, interactions less fluid, hardware requirements may be expensive, lacks pacing, may have high dropout rate

12.3.3. Self-Paced Pro - Con complete at own pace, increases attention, instructor spends less time making presentations, reduces cost of program Con - Lack of interaction, lead to monotony and lack of interest, self discipline required, procrastination leads to delays, requires team planning with faculty

12.3.4. Small Group Pro - Promotes active learning, allows discussions and working together, acquires experience in listening and oral expression, instructor gains increased awareness of student progress Con - Careful planning to create participation required, feedback needed to keep on track, activities are supplemental, costs may prohibit this approach

12.4. Example

12.4.1. Drill and Practice

12.4.2. Tutorials

12.4.3. Simulations

12.4.4. Games

12.4.5. Hypermedia

12.5. Justification of Developed Media

12.5.1. Mayer's Principles Reducing extraneous overload Coherence - Exclusion of extra info in animations/narrations Signaling - Learning enhanced with cues to draw attention Redundancy - Reduce redundancy stops overload of working memory Spatial contiguity - Relevant items presented in close proximity Temporal contiguity - Relevant items presented simultaneously Managing essential overload Segmenting - Present narrated animation in learner paced segments Pre-training - Understand basic infor before viewing animation Modality - Animation and narration more effect than animation and text Fostering generative processing Personalization - Written in conversational style Voice - Narration be spoken in standard accented voice

13. Phase 9: Sample Assessment

13.1. Assessment Instrument

13.1.1. Objective tests Multiple choice True-false Matching

13.1.2. Constructed-response tests Completion (fill in the blank) Short essay Long essay Problem-Solving

13.1.3. Testing skill/behavior Direct testing Analysis of natural results Ratings of behaviors Checklists of behaviors Rating scales Rubrics Anecdotal records Indirect checklist/rating measures Portfolio assessments Exhibitions

13.1.4. Testing attitudes Observation/assessment Questionnaire/survey Interviews

13.1.5. Quality of tests Validity Face - Judgement that it appears to assess measure of interest Content - involves more specific examination of individual items Reliability Test-retest correlates scores on two diff administrations Parallel forms correlates scores on similar tests taken at diff times Split-half correlates scores on half test with other half Internal-consistency reliability is comparable to performing all split half Relative standards - Compare with other learners Absolute standards - Compare against standards

13.2. Alignment

13.3. Context

13.3.1. Formative During development Early in the process

13.3.2. Summative Major outcomes in the end Key info from post tests or final

13.3.3. Confirmative Continuous, long-term, and follow up research Evaluation extends beyond course