SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS: BASIC PRINCIPLES (Chapter 20)

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SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS: BASIC PRINCIPLES (Chapter 20) von Mind Map: SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS: BASIC PRINCIPLES (Chapter 20)

1. ADITIONAL FACTORS & RELATED ISSUES

1.1. No-object verbs

1.1.1. *No object verbs are not followed by objects or complements.

1.1.2. *Their meaning is more 'complete'.

1.1.3. *They are sometimes called 'intransitive' verbs.

1.2. Verbs which belong to more than one type

1.2.1. *We use a lot of verbs in different ways.

1.2.1.1. They can function as objects, two-objects, object-complement, no-object, object, complement...

1.3. Necessary adverbials

1.3.1. *Certain verbs used with certain meanings in certain contexts require an adverbial for the sentence to make sense.

1.4. Different kinds of pronoun

1.4.1. *We use these personal pronouns only as subjects: I, he, she, we, they.

1.4.2. *Personal pronouns used as objects and complements: me, him, her, us, them.

1.4.3. *We use you and it as subject, object and complement.

1.5. Imperatives

1.5.1. *They are sometimes used for giving orders, but more often to make suggestions, give advice or to invite.

1.5.2. *We can use verbs of any type as imperatives.

1.6. 'DUMMY' Subjects: it and there

1.6.1. IT

1.6.1.1. *We use it as a dummy in talking about weather and times: it's raining, it's early.

1.6.1.2. *When we make certain kinds of change to the basic order of sentence constituents.

1.6.2. THERE

1.6.2.1. *We use there followed by a form of be to say that something exists.

1.6.3. DEFINITION

1.6.3.1. It is a word which contributes no meaning but is there because the clause would be ungrammatical without it.

1.7. Separated verb phrases

1.7.1. Question forms

1.7.1.1. SUBJECT-Have you been ill?

1.7.2. Some multiword verbs

1.7.2.1. OBJECT-We will put you up.

1.7.3. Adverbs and adverbials

1.7.3.1. ADVERB(IAL)- I can hardly believe it.

1.7.4. Spoken English

1.7.4.1. In speaking we often make ad hoc changes to many of the patterns outlined in this chapter and learners should not regard these as mistakes.

1.7.5. What we mean by 'word order'

1.7.5.1. *The order of words within a constituent.

1.7.5.2. *The order of constituents within a clause.

1.7.5.3. *The order of two or more clauses.

2. WHAT ARE SENTENCES CONSTITUENTS?

2.1. SENTENCES, CLAUSES AND CONSTITUENTS

2.1.1. *A sentece starts with capital letter and ends with a period. *A sentence can be formed by clauses and clauses further into constituents.

2.2. SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS WHICH DON'T FORM PART OF CLAUSES

2.2.1. *Conjunctions: are-but *Comment on the information in the clauses in some way, or show how they relate to other clauses and sentences.

2.3. DEFINITION

2.3.1. A sentence can be seen as a string of 'units' or blocks of language in a certain order. These units, or 'sentence constituents', consist of words or phrases.

3. HOW DO WE ORGANISE INFORMATION?

3.1. BASIC PRINCIPLES

3.1.1. We depend on FAMILIAR INFORMATION to help us understand ourselves to what is new and important and to put this in context.

3.1.2. BASIC ORDERING: The clauses follow this order: first goes the familiar information to orientate and then the NEW AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION

3.2. TYPES OF SENTENCES CONSTITUENTS

3.2.1. FUNCTION

3.2.1.1. Subjects

3.2.1.1.1. *They come immediately before the verb phrase in a clause.

3.2.1.1.2. *They often tell us what the predicate is about.

3.2.1.1.3. *Other kind of subjects include infinitive and -ing forms of verbs.

3.2.1.2. Direct Objects

3.2.1.2.1. They usually come after the verb phrase and the are normally noun phrases.

3.2.1.2.2. They answer to the question WHAT or WHO.

3.2.1.3. Object Verbs

3.2.1.3.1. We use direct objects only after certain types of verbs, known as 'object verbs'.

3.2.1.3.2. Object verbs can have a wide spectrum of meanings.

3.2.1.3.3. Also known as 'TRANSITIVE' or 'MONO-TRANSITIVE' verbs.

3.2.1.4. Complements

3.2.1.4.1. Also known as 'SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS'.

3.2.1.4.2. They describe something about the subject of the clause.

3.2.1.4.3. They may consist of:

3.2.1.5. Complement Verbs

3.2.1.5.1. They are used to connect the subject to the complement in a clause.

3.2.1.5.2. They usually express something about: being, seeming, and becoming.

3.2.1.5.3. Also known as 'linking', 'intensive' or 'copular' verbs.

3.2.1.6. Indirect objects

3.2.1.6.1. *They tell us who (or what) receives something or benefits from something.

3.2.1.6.2. *They are usually noun phrases and refer to people, animals or things.

3.2.1.7. Two-object ('double object') verbs

3.2.1.7.1. *They need to be followed by an indirect object as well as a direct object.

3.2.1.7.2. *They express some aspects of giving or communicating something to someone or doing some kind of service.

3.2.1.7.3. *Also called 'ditransitive' verbs.

3.2.1.7.4. *e.g. ask, bring, give, serve, take, tell.

3.2.1.8. Differences between objects and complements

3.2.1.8.1. They depend on the type of verb. We can distinguish between objects and complements in terms of meaning.

3.2.1.9. ADVERBIALS

3.2.1.9.1. *They are usually phrases beginning with a preposition, adverb or noun (one-word adverbials are known as 'adverbs').

3.2.1.9.2. * Adverbials are usually phrases that we choose whether or not to add to a clause.

3.2.1.9.3. * They often provide information about how, where or when something is done or takes place.

3.2.1.9.4. * We can use more than one adverbial together.

3.2.1.9.5. * They can also refer to a whole clause.

3.2.1.10. Coordinating Conjunctions

3.2.1.10.1. * They are only three words that mainly function as coordinating conjunctions.

3.2.1.10.2. *and, but, and or.

3.2.1.10.3. *They can:

3.2.2. FORM

3.2.2.1. Noun Phrases

3.2.2.1.1. They can consist of one word such as a name, pronoun, or noun.

3.2.2.1.2. Elements found in a noun phrase

3.2.2.2. Verb Phrases

3.2.2.2.1. * A single-word main verb.

3.2.2.2.2. * A multiword main verb.

3.2.2.2.3. *One or more auxiliary verbs and main verb.

3.2.2.2.4. * Two main verbs.

3.2.2.3. Preposition Phrases

3.2.2.3.1. They are groups of words that begin with a preposition and contain a noun phrase.

3.2.2.3.2. 1. Preposition + noun phrase . 2. Noun + preposition phrase.

3.2.2.4. Adjective Phrases

3.2.2.4.1. 1. They contain an adjective, which may follow one or more adverbs.

3.2.2.4.2. 2. Adjective phrases may begin rather than end with the adjective.

3.2.2.5. Adverb Phrases

3.2.2.5.1. They contain an adverb, which may follow one or more other adverbs.

4. REVIEW OF CLAUSES, CLAUSE TYPE AND THE ORDER OF SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS

4.1. *Most clauses consist of a subject and predicate.

4.2. *The subject is what usually comes before the verb phrase and the predicate is everything else.

4.2.1. 5 KINDS OF PREDICATE (and therefore five types of clause).

4.2.1.1. 1- verb phrase+direct object.

4.2.1.2. 2. verb-phrase+complement

4.2.1.3. 3.verb-phrase+indirect object+direct object.

4.2.1.4. 4. verb-phrase+direct object+complement

4.2.1.5. 5. Only the verb-phrase

4.2.2. Predicates (and clauses) can also contain an adverbial.