Nature vs Nurture

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Nature vs Nurture von Mind Map: Nature vs Nurture

1. Nurture - Nurture refers to the influences of experience that we learn through our interactions with both physical and social environment. This debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life or by a person's genes.

1.1. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception, like the product of exposure, life experiences and learning on an individual.

1.2. Nurture refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture.

1.3. Supporters of this view are known as 'empiricists'.

2. Nature - Nature refers to inherited characteristics and abilities determined by our genes This debate has gained a lot more credibility in recent years after many years of being discredited.

2.1. Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors.

2.2. Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are, from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics.

2.3. Supporters of this view are known as 'hereditarians' or 'nativists'.

3. The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life or by a person's genes.

3.1. Nature and Nurture involves the particular aspect of behavior are a product of either inherited like genetic, acquired, learned or influence of our environment.

4. Interactionist - It is the study of how individuals shape society and are shaped by society through meaning that arises in interactions.

4.1. Interactionist or Symbolic Interactionism ideas is all about a theory that focuses on the relationships among individuals within a society.

4.2. Epigenetics switching on and off of genes, does not change the genetic makeup of DNA, the study of how gene effects can be modified by environment

5. The real life Nature vs Nurture debate are focus around the effects of genes on human and how does it may influence in early environment.

5.1. Nurture shows the impact of our environment on us. Like when something has change in our environment it also have an impact for us. Nurture refers our relationship with our family and how did they raised us and our social relationship with other people. While the Nature is our genetics. Our traits that we inherit to our parents.

6. A key studies and theories.

6.1. Plato

6.1.1. He believed that behaviour and knowledge were due to innate factors. Plato theorized that all knowledge is present at birth.

6.2. Descartes

6.2.1. He's on the side of nature with his innate ideas and the fact that everything relies on you and your reasoning skills.

6.2.2. His concept known as dualism there are two kinds of foundation mental and body. Dualism is the position that mind and body are in some categorical way separate from each other, and that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical in nature.

6.3. Aristotle

6.3.1. He theorized differently about human behavior.

6.4. John Locke

6.4.1. He proposed a theory which called Tabula Rasa or Blank Slate in 1960's. The debate between "blank-slate" denial of the influence of heritability, and the view admitting both environmental and heritable traits, has often been cast in terms of nature versus nurture.

6.4.2. Tabula Rasa is the epistemological theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception.

6.5. John B. Watson and B.F Skinner

6.5.1. They proposed Behavioural approach which they believe that the human behaviour is adopted by the social environment. Watson and Skinner believed that all human behavior was the result of conditioning, either classical (associative) or operant (reinforcement and punishment). Also, Skinner (1957) believed that language is learnt from other people via behavior shaping techniques.

6.6. John Bowlby

6.6.1. In 1907 to 1990, Bowlby was a psychoanalyst like Sigmund Freud. Bowlby believe that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive.

6.6.2. He believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood.

6.7. Harry Harlow

6.7.1. He conducted an experiment in a monkey and dolls which he see that the monkey get attached to the dolls because the dolls provide milk for them. The other doll is covered with a cloth and the other one is covered with a wire.

6.8. Winthrop Niles Kellogg

6.8.1. He conduct an experiment called “The Ape and the Child” which he and his wife used their son Donald for their experiment. Donald was used in an experiment with a female chimpanzee named Gua. Gua was seven and a half months old at that time and Donald was ten months old. The purpose of their experiment was to learn what are the similarities and differences would develop between a baby and ape.

6.9. Noam Chompsky

6.9.1. He proposed Language Acquisition Device or LAD. LAD is the innate biological ability of humans to acquire and develop language derived from the innate processes. Innate is something which is already there in mind since birth. LAD was developed by linguist Chomsky who contributed to the field of cognitive psychology through his language research.

6.10. Jean Piaget

6.10.1. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence.

6.10.2. His contributions include a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.

6.11. Albert Bandura

6.11.1. His Social learning theory example is the Bobo doll. He showed a child a traumatic scene that an adult was punching, kicking, shouting and beating the doll. The child will carry that scene until he/she grows and he/she will apply it to his/herself and start doing it to others. That’s what social learning theory is.

6.12. Francis Galton

6.12.1. He agreed that the nature side argue the DNA and genotype that we are born with determine who we are and what personality and traits we will have.

6.12.2. Eugenics is science of improving a population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.

7. Twin study

7.1. Twins, triplets, quadruplets are the most used topic for a scientist because it shows that if twins are separated for a long time and living in a different environment, different families, different living standards, different places were they grow up, they still have the same personalities. Example the Three Identical Strangers they were given into three different families and raised in a different places and grew up with different life standards but after 19 years of being away from each other, they reunite. And they have the same personalities and same in everything like favorite color, favorite brand of cigarettes, same taste in women, same in everything but they were separated for 19 years it's all because of their genetics. Their genetics has a role that even though they didn't grow up together they still have a bond together as one.

7.1.1. No matter how long does a twins, triplets or quadruplets separate the first time that they see each other they're gonna feel that they knew each other for a long time it's because of genetics.

7.1.2. Genetics is a traits from parents to children.

7.2. Twin study is a Natural experiment.

8. Language Acquisition Device

8.1. Language acquisition device or LAD proposed by Noam Chompsky in 1960s. LAD's purpose on us is to talk and learn about language. LAD concept is an instinctive mental capacity which enables an infant to acquire and produce language. It is a component of the nativist theory of language. This theory asserts that humans are born with the instinct or "innate facility" for acquiring language.

9. The human genome project

9.1. HGP was an international scientific research project with the determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up the human DNA and identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both physical and functional standpoint.