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SOUND af Mind Map: SOUND

1. Radio Industry

2. Recording Industry

2.1. Ownership of the industry is global: the key players are the largest media conglomerates operating in the world today

2.1.1. 3 things are made clearly for this industry in the United States

2.1.1.1. 1. Ownership is international

2.1.1.1.1. To get an idea, only 1 of the 3 largest recording company based in the US is owned by vivendi, a french conglomerate. Sony owned by Sony Corporation of Japan. Warner is owned by a new york based conglomerate called Access Industries. The country of origin of each of these firms does not typically dictate the kind if music it tries io circulate

2.1.1.2. 2. Production is dispersed

2.1.1.2.1. There are small, independent record companies and digital technology lowers the barrier of entry. Independents or indies now account for a third of recorded music in the the U.S. today.

2.1.1.3. 3. Distribution is concentrated (Txbk pg 160)

2.1.1.3.1. The three major recording companies dominate global distribution (Study guide pg 47)

2.1.2. The key category within the recording industry audience is age group. Younger audiences buy more records than older ones. (Study guide pg 47)

2.1.3. People 51 years old and older tend to buy music in percentages smaller than their proportion in the population (Txbk pg 160)

2.2. Since the last century, the role of music has shifted from performance to consumption, and from playing instruments to listening to recordings.

2.3. As we explore more, you will note tat qualify of sound and reproduction in 20th century are changing for the better. It shows how increasing the amount of audio material on a record as well as its quality became a goal for recording engineers

2.3.1. We can see 3 themes from the history of recording (Rise of the recording)

2.3.1.1. 1. Sound recordings did not arrive as a result of one inventor’s grand change.

2.3.1.2. 2. Audio recording as a medium of communication developed as a result of social, legal responses to the technology during different periods

2.3.1.3. 3.The recording industry developed and changed as a result of struggles to control audio recording and their relation to audience

2.3.2. Overview of Modern recording industry

2.3.2.1. Product is released in 2 lengths

2.3.2.1.1. They noticed that physical single sales is negligible compared to album sales. in contrast, iTunes and other sites, digital singles are less expensive and many go after their favourite songs. Despite the impressive numbers of 1.6 billion single digital tracks sold in US in 2014, executives worry that their firms have a harder time maintaining profits when consumers buy single songs instead of albums (Txbk pg160)

2.3.2.1.2. Year 2011 saw the first year that digital sales overtook physical sales. (Study guide 47); it was a silver lining in the situation where physical albums purchased has dropped. This has to do with a new trend in American's use of digital platforms for music

2.3.2.1.3. Single

2.3.2.1.4. Album

2.3.2.2. Changing media platforms

2.3.2.2.1. There are many dverse recording media formats. Today's physical media include compact disc (CD), CD singles, music vids and vinyl records. Due to the increasing convenience and low cost of digital platforms, it has become the preferred choice.

2.3.2.2.2. Although people paying to own the song is the most common way of selling, they have 2 other major opportunities: streaming and ringtones

2.3.2.3. Diverse Music Genre

2.3.2.3.1. A huge variety of recorded music genres are now available globally

2.3.3. Even though audience can hear same performances on different devices, recording firms can also promote their product by having them or parts of it hyped on many different devices. However from industry point of view, it has led to wholesale copying as audience found ways to share files across media without paying. such activities led to industry furor about piracy.

2.4. Production and recording industy

2.4.1. Artists and labels are on the lookout for each other, but the industry is difficult to break into.

2.4.1.1. Label: A division of a recording firm that releases a certain type of music and reflects a certain personality

2.4.2. An A&R (artist and repertoire) person is responsible to scout for new talents.

2.4.2.1. A&R: recording firm executives who screen new acts for a firm and determine whether or not to sign those acts

2.4.3. Groups or bands hire managers to plan and manage how they develop.

2.4.4. Artists in the US are part of the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) or the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA).

2.4.5. ASCAP and BMI are collection agencies that collect royalties from recorded music; these are the sources of income for artists; most royalty revenue comes from radio airplay; some players are able to force young songwriters to share songwriting credits, assuring royalty payments for people who had nothing to do with the song.

2.4.5.1. Royalty: share of money paid to songwriter or music compose our of the money that the production firm receives from the sale or exhibition of a work

2.4.5.2. Performance royalty are paid to composers, publishers and record labels when their material is used (live or recorded) in front of audience via stage acts, tv, radio etc

2.4.5.3. Mechanical royalties are collected as a result of the sale of physical media (eg. CDs) and the sale or download of digital recording, including albums, individual tracks and ringtones. In US, any artist has a right to record a musical work as long the creators have already given permission to someone to make a public recording of that work. Example on pg 163 of txbk

2.4.6. A producer produces the record and handles booking studio musicians and clearing copyrights.

2.4.7. How artist are compensated

2.4.7.1. Studio musicians are typically paid by the hour Major artists are paid in royalties

2.4.7.2. Making money in music is difficult, and the amount depends on the music file format.