Verb patterns

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Verb patterns af Mind Map: Verb patterns

1. Gerund

1.1. Verb + gerund

1.1.1. Likes and dislikes dislike, can't stand, enjoy, hate, like, love, (not) mind, prefer I enjoy not doing anything sometimes. Simon doesn't mind working late today.

1.1.2. Ideas and opinions admit, consider, imagine, look forward to, recommend, suggest, think of Do you admit stealing that watch? I'd recommend staying near the beach. He suggested paying by credit card.

1.1.3. Actions that start, stop or continue begin, continue, delay, give up, start, stop, finish, keep (on), practise, put off, spend (time) Has he given up smoking? I spent two hours preparing this meal. Lena practises singing every day.

1.1.4. Others avoid, can't help, deny, involve, mention, miss, risk You can't risk losing your job over a silly argument.

1.2. The gerund as subject and object

1.2.1. Subject of the sentence Swimming is a good all-round exercise. Living in the city is more exciting than living in the country.

1.2.2. Object of the sentence My job involves listening to music. I hate being woken up by the phone.

1.3. Go, do the and do some + gerund

1.3.1. Go + gerund When we talk about doing sports and other activities The boys often go fishing at the weekends. I go shopping - it's the best way to relax.

1.3.2. Do the/some + gerund When we talk about work in the home Have you done the ironing? We'd better do some cleaning this weekend.

1.4. Like/love/hate/prefer without would

1.4.1. I love going mountain climbing. (I enjoy the activity)

1.4.2. I prefer eating at home to eating in restaurants. (in general)

2. Bare infinitive

2.1. After modal verbs

2.1.1. We can use the swimming pool after 8.00 a.m.

2.1.2. We'll send you an entry form in the post.

2.2. Help

2.2.1. I'll help pack your rucksack.

2.2.2. We helped to tidy up after the party.

2.3. After would rather

2.3.1. Only if the subject of would rather and the second verb is the same! We'd rather we went by plane.

2.4. Make and let

2.4.1. Mrs Grant makes Justin practise every day.

2.4.2. In the passive they do have 'to' The prisoners were made to walk 50 km.

3. To infinitive

3.1. Verb + to infinitive

3.1.1. Mental state or activity agree, choose, decide, forget, learn, remember, want, wish Why did we decide to go camping? I'm learning to read classical Arabic.

3.1.2. Future arrangements aim, arrange, expect, hope, offer, plan, prepare, promise, refuse, threaten The college promised not to give up my place. Our neighbours are threatening to call the police.

3.1.3. Appearance appear, pretend, seem, tend Mr Knowles doesn't seem to be very confident.

3.1.4. Others attmempt, (can/can't) afford, ask, deserve, fail, offer, try The letter failed to arrive on time.

3.2. To infinitive after would + like/love/hate/prefer

3.2.1. I'd love to go mountain climbing. (in the future)

3.2.2. I'd prefer to stay in tonight. (on this occasion)

3.2.3. Without 'would' it takes a gerund and has a different meaning. See: gerund.

4. Infinitive AND gerund

4.1. With similar meaning

4.1.1. begin, hate, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, start Oh no! It's just started to rain! Oh no! It's just started raining!

4.2. With slightly different meaning

4.2.1. sense verbs: feel, hear, see (gerund or bare infinitive) We were watching the runway and saw your plane arrive. (we saw the plane as it came down and landed) We saw your plane arriving as we parked the car. (we saw the plane in the sky but we didn't see it land.

4.3. With different meaning

4.3.1. forget, remember For an event or situation in the past: I'll never forget riding my first bike. For something you do/should have done: Don't forget to lock the back door!

4.3.2. go on Continue an activity: They stopped, by we went on walking. Change from one action to another: After a slow start, she went on to win the race.

4.3.3. regret Feel sorry about smth you did/didn't do: I regret not studying harder at school. Say sorry, particularly in formal letters: We regret to inform you...

4.3.4. stop Finish an action: Have you stopped practising now? Finish an action in order to do smth else: No, we've just stopped to take a brake.

4.3.5. try Do something as an experiment: Try turning it on and off again. Attempt to do something difficult: I'm not an electrician, but I'll try to mend it.